Platform Sosial Media Paling Populer di Dunia Saat ini

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Apakah kalian termasuk anak gaul yang tahu dan pakai semua aplikasi sosial media yang paling populer saat ini? Atau mungkin kalian termasuk yang sudah gaul dari dulu semenjak jaman Friendster dan MySpace?

Seiring dengan berjalannya waktu berbagai jenis platform sosial media semakin bermunculan, semakin kreatif, inovatif dan semakin canggih.

Hanya platform yang berani beradaptasi dengan perubahan zaman dan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan para penggunalah yang akhirnya dapat bertahan lama diantara banyaknya persaingan. Selain dari ketenarannya, setiap platform memiliki demografis pengguna yang bisa dibilang unik, berbeda antara yang satu dengan yang lainnya.

Sampai bulan Februari 2018, lima platform sosial media paling populer di dunia saat ini yaitu :

1. Facebook

Platform yang satu ini sudah tidak perlu penjelasan panjang lebar. Dengan jumlah pengguna aktif sebanyak 2,13 Milyar orang bisa dipastikan bahwa hampir sepertiga penduduk planet bumi mempunyai akun Facebook.

Didirikan oleh Mark Zuckerberg, bersama teman-temannya di Universitas Harvard, Facebook mulai diluncurkan pada bulan Februari 2004. Berkantor pusat di Menlo Park, California, kini Facebook memiliki lebih dari 25.000 karyawan dengan 42 kantor cabang internasional yang tersebar di berbagai belahan dunia. Meskipun sangat populer, ada pula beberapa negara yang memblokir Facebook karena berbagai alasan kontroversi. Beberapa negara tersebut diantaranya yaitu China, Vietnam Iran, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Suriah dan Bangladesh.

Selain berdiri sendiri sebagai perusahaan besar, Facebook juga mengakuisisi dua platform sosial media yang tak kalah populer yaitu Instagram dan Whatsapp sebagai anak perusahaannya.

2. Youtube

Platform video ini didirikan Steve Chen, Chad Hurley dan Jawed Karim pada Februari 2005, ketiga orang pendirinya adalah mantan karyawan Paypal. Youtube berkantor pusat di San Bruno, California, dan menurut data terbaru terdapat lebih dari 1,5 Milyar pengguna aktif setiap bulannya. Pada bulan November 2005, Youtube akhirnya dibeli oleh Google dan resmi beroperasi sebagai anak perusahaannya. Jadi nggak heran ya kalau akun Youtube kalian bisa langsung terintegrasi dengan akun Google mail, Google+ dan bahkan browser Chrome.

Sama hal dengan induk perusahaannya, kini Youtube menjadi mesin pencari terbesar kedua setelah Google. Meskipun jauh berbeda dengan Facebook dalam aspek interaksi pengguna, Youtube secara unik masuk dalam kategori platform sosial media yang memungkinkan informasi tersampaikan dalam bentuk video. Selain itu, pengguna dapat berinteraksi dengan pengunggah video dan pengguna lain dengan menyampaikan pendapatnya tentang suatu video dengan memberikan komentar.

3. Instagram

Terinspirasi oleh kamera polaroid yang dapat menghasilkan foto secara instan, platform ini dikembangkan oleh perusahaan Burbn, Inc yang berdiri pada tahun 2010. Bermula dari aplikasi berbagi foto yang hanya bisa dinikmati oleh pengguna iPhone, kini instagram menjadi raksasa media sosial ketiga dengan pengguna aktif lebih dari 800juta orang setiap bulannya.

Fitur paling populernya adalah berbagi foto dan video secara langsung dimanapun dan kapanpun. Kepopuleran instagram semakin naik daun dengan banyaknya pengguna yang memanfaatkan aplikasi ini sebagai media untuk bisnis dan memasarkan produk. Pada tahun 2012 Instagram secara resmi dibeli oleh Facebook dan menjadi anak perusahan Facebook yang tak kalah populer.

4. Twitter

Didirikan pada bulan Maret 2006 oleh Jack Dorsey, meskipun berada pada urutan ke-empat, Twitter selalu masuk dalam daftar salah satu dari sepuluh platform yang paling sering dikunjungi oleh pengguna internet. Data terakhir menunjukkan setidaknya terdapat 330 Juta pengguna aktif platform ini setiap bulannya.

Twitter terinspirasi dari penggunaan kode pesan singkat yang awalnya hanya dikembangkan sebagai media komunikasi internal pada perusahaan podcast bernama Odeo. Postingan pengguna dinamakan “tweet”, yang secara harviah diartikan sebagai ‘kicauan burung’, dengan maksud sebagai sesuatu yang bersifat singkat, berisik dan tidak penting. Filosofi ini lah yang mendasari nama, logo dan prinsip utama Twitter yang selalu simple. Salah satunya terlihat dari pembatasan jumlah karakter tweet yang tidak boleh melebihi 280 karakter, postingan singkat ini termasuk sebagai media mikrobloging yang singkat dan cepat.

Salah satu fitur penting twitter yang tidak dimiliki oleh platform lain adalah trending topic, dimana pengguna dapat mengetahui topik yang paling terkini, terpanas dan terpopuler yang sedang dibicarakan oleh pengguna dimanapun dan kapanpun.

5. Reddit

Platform yang satu ini jauh berbeda jika dibandingkan keempat platform sebelumnya karena bentuk interaksi yang dilakukan oleh penggunanya. Reddit merupakan media agregasi dan diskusi yang memungkinkan para anggotanya untuk melakukan rating dan mendiskusikan suatu konten yang di posting. Apabila media yang lain merupakan ajang pamer, Reddit adalah media berkumpulnya orang-orang cerdas yang mau berdiskusi panjang lebar.

Didirikan oleh Steve Huffman dan Alexis Ohanian pada tahun 2005, keduanya merupakan mahasiswa Universitas Virginia dan teman sekamar. Nama asal platform ini merupakan permainan kata dari frase “read it”. Pengguna yang memposting konten dinamakan ‘redditors’, konten yang diposting dikelompokkan dalam beberapa kategori yang berbeda dibawah kategori tersebut yang dinamakan ‘subreddits’. Sama seperti platform yang lain, pengguna tidak dikenakan biaya untuk mendaftar menjadi anggota. Selain gratis, pendaftaran juga tidak perlu menggunakan email. Pengguna yang tidak mempunyai akun juga dapat membaca diskusi namun tidak dapat berpartisipasi.

Hingga tahun 2017 tercatat terdapat lebih dari 250 juta pengguna aktif setiap bulan dan situs ini merupakan website yang paling banyak dikunjungi keempat di Amerika Serikat dan ke-8 di dunia.


(update maret 2018)

6. Pinterest

Merupakan platform sosial media yang memungkinkan pengguna untuk berbagi gambar dan video yang kemudian dikatalogkan dalam berbagai kategori. Berbeda dengan sosial media lainnya yang kebanyakan mengharuskan pengguna untuk mengikuti akun pengguna lain, pinterest tidak hanya memperbolehkan pengguna platform ini untuk mengikuti pengguna lain tapi juga dapat mengikuti suatu topik dan konten yang dimiliki pengguna lain yang dikenal dengan nama ‘boards’.

Ide pembuatan Pinterest dimulai pada bulan Desember 2009 dan mulai diluncurkan secara tertutup pada bulan Maret 2010 melalui undangan ke calon pengguna baru. Meskipun begitu, platform yang satu ini dinilai sebagai salah satu sosial media yang unik dan menjadi jaringan sosial ketiga terbesar di Amerika Serikat pada bulan Maret 2012. Masih di tahun yang sama, bulan Agustus, akhirnya Pinterest dibuka untuk umum tanpa harus melalui undangan registrasi dan juga diluncurkan dalam bentuk aplikasi untuk Android dan iPad.

Berkantor pusat di San Francisco, California,Pinterest digagas oleh tiga orang pendiri yaitu Ben Silbermann, Paul Sciarra dan Evan Sharp. Data terakhir yang dilaporkan pada bulan September 2017, Pinterest memiliki sekitar 200 juta pengguna aktif setiap bulannya.

7. Vine

Didirikan pada bulan Juni 2012, Vine dibeli oleh Twitter pada bulan Oktober 2012 sebelum diluncurkan secara resmi. Platform ini merupakan media dimana pengguna dapat berbagi video pendek dengan durasi 6 detik, yang kemudian dapat pula dibagikan ke berbagai platform lain seperti facebook dan twitter.

Vine merupakan platform sukses yang hanya bertahan dalam jangka waktu yang tidak lama. Diluncurkan resmi pada Januari 2013, dalam kurun waktu dua tahun media unik ini telah digunakan oleh lebih dari 200juta pengguna aktif. Alasan ketenaran Vine sebenarnya cukup menarik, bagi sebagian pengguna membuat video bedurasi enam detik sama halnya dengan seorang blogger yang harus menuangkan idenya dalam satu postingan twitter dengan karakter yang terbatas. Disinilah kekreatifan pengguna diuji. Tak ayal, berbagai video lucu dan meme seru menjadi daya tarik tersendiri di kalangan pengguna sosial media. Sayangnya, Vine tidak lagi beroperasi aktif. Pada tanggal 27 oktober 2016 Twitter memutuskan untuk tidak lagi menerima upload video pada Vine, meskipun pengguna masih dapat melihat dan mendowload video yang sudah ada. Januari 2017, applikasi platform berubah nama menjadi Vine Camera dan hanya bisa posting video ke Twitter, perubahan ini tidak disambut baik oleh para penggemar sejati Vine original.

Berita baiknya, pada tahun 2018 ini salah satu pendiri Vine, Dom Hoffman, berencana untuk merilis versi baru Vine yang dinamakan V2 dengan fitur lama video yang bervariasi dari 2 sampai 6,5 detik dan berulang tanpa henti.

8. Ask.fm

Kalau platform yang satu ini diperuntukkan bagi kamu yang kepo tapi malu-malu kucing untuk bertanya. Lalu apa bedanya dengan social media yang lain? Semua social media memberikan akses pengguna untuk saling berinteraksi, berdiskusi dan melemparkan pertanyaan kan?

Iya, memang benar. Tapi tidak semua social media memberikan fitur ‘anonimous’ alias tanpa nama. Jadi kamu dapat bertanya ke pengguna lain dengan label anonimus sehingga dia tidak tahu siapa yang memberikan pertanyaan.
Unik kan? Iya, pastinya. Tapi dibalik semua kesuksesan platform ini, ada cerita sedih juga. Jadi, karena adanya fitur anonimous, banyak terjadi penyalahgunaan. Media yang harusnya menjadi penyambung komunikasi malah kemudian digunakan sebagai ajang cyberbully. Diketahui ada dua orang remaja yang akhirnya ditemukan bunuh diri karena mendapatkan banyak komentar/pertanyaan yang tidak seharusnya. Selain itu banyak pula penggunaan kata-kata vulgar yang digunakan oleh para pengguna yang lolos moderasi dan tidak dihapus.

Platform ini didirikan pada tanggal 16 Juni 2010 di Latvia oleh dua bersaudara Ilja dan Mark Terebin. Meskipun banyak kontroversi, sampai awal tahun ini diketahui Ask.fm digunakan oleh lebih dari 160 juta pengguna aktif setiap bulannya.

9. Tumblr

Didirikan pada bulan Februari 2007, Tumblr merupakan media sosial mikroblogging dimana pengguna dapat berbagi konten dan multimedia. Meskipun pengertian mikroblogging disini tidak sependek dan sesederhana Twitter post, istilah pada saat itu lebih dikenal dengan tumblelogs atau blog pendek.

Sama halnya platform yang lain, Tumblr juga tak luput dari kontroversi. Dari fiturnya sendiri yang memperbolehkan pengguna untuk memposting konten milik pengguna lain yang dinamakan re-blogging sehingga banyak terjadi penyalahgunaan copyright. Bahkan di negara kita dan juga di China, Kazakhstan dan Iran, Tumblr pernah diblokir dengan alasan terlalu banyak konten penggunanya yang mengandung unsur pornografi, ekstrimisme agama dan LGBT.

Meskipun begitu hingga saat ini, Tumblr masih banyak digemari pengguna setia dan baru. Setiap perubahan menjadikannya lebih berkembang dan bertahan dalam deretan platform social media terpopuler. Data sampai bulan februari 2018 menunjukkan terdapat 115juta pengguna aktif Tumblr setiap bulannya.

10. Flickr

Bersaing ketat dengan Tumblr, Flickr berada pada deretan ke-10 dari platform sosial media paling populer dengan pengguna aktif sebanyak 112 juta orang setiap bulannya.

Diluncurkan pada bulan Februari 2004 oleh perusahaan Ludicorp yang dirikan oleh Steward Butterfield dan Caterina Fake, Flickr pada awalnya dirancang sebagai salah satu fitur online games yang dikembangkan oleh perusahaan tersebut. Pada akhirnya Flickr ternyata lebih banyak diminati oleh pengguna dibandingkan games yang dikembangkan, sehingga dilanjutkanlah pembuatan proyek ini.

Flickr kemudian berkembang menjadi salah satu website hosting untuk berbagi gambar dan video yang cukup ternama. Tampilannya yang elegan menarik pengguna yang bergerak di bidang fotografi baik profesional maupun dari komunitas online. Kebanyakan pengguna mengunggah gambar dengan kualitas tinggi yang kemudian banyak digunakan oleh blogger untuk ditampilkan pada blog mereka. Platform yang berkantor pusat di California ini kemudian diakuisisi oleh Yahoo pada tanggal 20 Maret 2005.

Pada bulan Maret 2013 diperkirakan setidaknya terdapat 3,5juta gambar yang diunggah ke platform ini setiap harinya. Konten yang sudah diunggah dapat diakses oleh siapapun bahkan yang tidak terdaftar sebagai pengguna.

Apakah kalian sudah mencoba semua platform sosial media diatas? Mana yang menjadi favorit dan paling populer di lingkaran pertemananmu? Dan satu yang perlu diingat, bahwa tujuan dari dikembangkannya berbagai media bersosialisasi virtual diatas adalah untuk mempermudah komunikasi dan berbagi informasi diantara kita. Bukan sebagai media untuk berkompetisi, ajang narsis atau bahkan sebagai alasan untuk jadi anti-sosial.

sumber: https://bukugue.com

ASEAN Scholarship, Beasiswa Favorit Mahasiswa Indonesia di Thailand (Now Opening)

Blog Pak Heri

Oleh: Heri Akhmadi, M.A.

Tulisan mengenai “ASEAN Scholarship, Beasiswa Favorit Mahasiswa Indonesia di Thailand” ini adalah bagian dari serial tulisan “Kuliah di Thailand” yang sudah saya tulis sebelumnya. Saya tulis khusus mengenai ASEAN Scholarship (AS) karena ini salah satu beasiswa rutin yang dirilis oleh pemerintah Thailand, melalui beberapa kampus yang ada di sana, khususnya kampus pemerintah atau universitas negeri ternama seperti Chulalongkorn University, Mahidol University dan Kasetsart University.

Sebagaimana sudah saya tulis sekilas di tulisan saya sebelumnya mengenai “7 Beasiswa Kuliah di Thailand”, ASEAN Scholarship merupakan salah satu beasiswa favorit yang banyak diminati oleh mahasiswa Indonesia. Beasiswa ini, sesuai dengan namanya memang beasiswa yang hanya diperuntukkan bagi mahasiswa asing yang berasal dari negara-negara ASEAN, meliputi Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapura, Philipina, Brunei, Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos dan Kamboja. Sebagaimana disebutkan dalam panduan beasiswa ASEAN Scholarship, salah satu alasan dari diluncurkannya beasiswa ini merupakan bagian dari program Internasionalisasi perguruan tinggi di Thailand.

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Daftar Jurnal Nasional dan Internasional di Bidang Agribisnis dan Ekonomi Pertanian

Blog Pak Heri

Oleh: Heri Akhmadi, S.P., M.A.*

Beberapa waktu lalu saya ditanya oleh teman tentang rekomendasi jurnal-jurnal di bidang agribisnis untuk publikasi ilmiah. Kebetulah dia sedang menempuh jenjang pasca sarjana dan sedang “berburu” jurnal untuk keperluan publikasi hasil penelitiannya.

Mencari jurnal agribisnis/sosial ekonmi pertanian yang tepat untuk publikasi memang tidak mudah. Pertama karena sumber data dari Dikti misal dari database ARJUNA (Akreditasi Jurnal Nasional) biasanya tidak memberikan informasi secara detail database jurnal berdasarkan bidang studi/scope keilmuannya. Umumnya data yang adalah data semua jurnal dari semua disiplin ilmu. Oleh karena itu melalui tulisan ini selain menjadi database saya pribadi semoga bisa membantu rekan-rekan peneliti, mahasiswa atau siapa saja di bidang agribisnis dan sosial ekonomi yang akan mepublikasin karyanya namun masih galau mau dipublis ke mana.

Peraturan Terbaru Kemenristekdikti Tentang Akreditasi Jurnal

Daftar jurnal saya bagi menjadi beberapa kategori sebagaimana aturan terbaru dari Kementerian Riset dan Pendidikan Tinggi (Kemenristekdikti) pada aturan terbarunya Menteri sebagaimana…

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Surin – The City of Elephant in Thailand

Surin is the clearly the city of elephants without any doubt. Whether you are looking out of your window while traveling here, you will see elephants roaming around through the spectacular features and scenery of this province. You will never get the same vibe from other provinces for sure.

Surin Pic (รูปจังหวัดสุรินทร์)

General Information about Surin, Thailand

The small province in the Esan region is basically Surin. The province itself may be small, but the population is quite dense here, apart from the elephants of course. This province is also very close to the Cambodian border which is why you can see many ethnic groups from Cambodia such as the Suay people.

However, this city is quite peaceful and quiet despite its high density of population. As Surin has a long history of elephants, you can see the symbol of the province which has an elephant on it anywhere in this province. They also have great souvenirs such as silk and jasmine rice.

You can get here by taking a plane from Nok Air which takes you around three hours of sitting on a plane. You can also choose to drive here yourself for 450 kilometers from Bangkok or take a bus from the Northern Bus Terminal which could take longer than driving. Taking a train here would be great too.

The famous attractions in Surin, Thailand

Famous places around Surin are awesome and terrific! They are what you are looking for when you are visiting Thailand to see the culture, tradition, and others. If you are also looking for excitement, then these famous places are perfect for you. So, go on and see my list for all the famous places here!

Ban Ta Klang Elephant Village

Ban Ta Klang Elephant Village (หมู่บ้านช้างบ้านตากลาง)

Ban Ta Klang Elephant Village (หมู่บ้านช้างบ้านตากลาง)

The first famous place of this province is Ban Ta Klang Elephant Village. It is the best place that you can completely learn all about the National Animal of Thailand. This is also the community of the Suay people in which they take refuge from Cambodia and they also specialized in raising elephants. There are about 200 to 300 elephants living here which is the most in Thailand and the world. Once you step in here, you will experience the culture and tradition of elephant raisers. They raise the elephants like they are in their own family or friends. They also have a close relationship with those elephants in any activities that they do together.

Ban Ta Klang Elephant Village (หมู่บ้านช้างบ้านตากลาง)

Ban Ta Klang Elephant Village (หมู่บ้านช้างบ้านตากลาง)

You can train yourself to become the elephant tamer! You can learn all the basics of controlling and riding! There is a show you can watch such as the dancing elephant, an elephant that can draw, soccer, and etc. In the evening, you can observe the elephants shower near the Mae Kong River with amazing sceneries.

Ta Thip Village

Ta Thip Village (หมู่บ้านตาทิพย์)

Ta Thip Village (หมู่บ้านตาทิพย์)

There is a homestay at Surin called Ta Thip Village. What special about this village is that it is the village where all elephant tamers organize some activities together. This is the homestay where you can live closely with elephants. You can take elephants to bath at the river, clean them up, and cut some sugar canes for them to eat. Each elephant will have at least one tamer to take care of you for safety reasons and help you with whatever you need.

Wedding on an elephant’s back or Satte

Satte - Wedding on an elephant’s back (ซัตเต - แต่งงานบนหลังช้าง)

Satte – Wedding on an elephant’s back (ซัตเต – แต่งงานบนหลังช้าง)

If you want to experience an exotic wedding experience, you can experience it here! Every 14th of February, there is a tradition of a wedding on an elephant’s back or Satte in the Khmer language. The bride and groom will wear the ancient costume of Khmer and participate in the tradition. There is also a parade that consists of more than 50 elephants as a crucial part in this holy tradition of the ancient Gui. After that, you will get married on the elephant’s back which is very unique and only available at Surin. There are other traditions and cultures that involve elephants which you can say that Surin is the city of elephants of Thailand.

Satte - Wedding on an elephant’s back (ซัตเต - แต่งงานบนหลังช้าง)

Satte – Wedding on an elephant’s back (ซัตเต – แต่งงานบนหลังช้าง)

Local Tells

The province of Surin is already a unique province of itself and require no further explanation of how brilliant it is. However, the locals have proved me wrong and they provided me with a list of awesome recommended places that you should see once you are here. Be sure to visit them all!

Sikhoraphum castle

Sikhoraphum Castle

Sikhoraphum Castle

At Surin, there are countless ancient Khmer castles and you can say that this province has the most of it. There is one extraordinary castle in Surin which is Sikhoraphum castle. It is an old castle that was built during the 11th century. This castle reflects the belief of Brahma which consists of five statues with five attitudes on one stone plate. The statue in the middle has a height of 28 meters! You can also see crafted stone plates called Tub Lang here and they tell various stories on them. Most people consider these stone plates to be the some of the most beautiful ones in Thailand. There is also a Tub Lang that resembles the one at Nakorn Wat that you can only see it here out of all places in Thailand!

Sikhoraphum Castle

Sikhoraphum Castle

Tungkula Lake

Tungkula Lake

Tungkula Lake

Next up is a lake called Tungkula Lake which is actually a big swamp with more than 1.2 square kilometers of area and has a blueish color like the sea. With clear water, chill winds, and beautiful sky, this is the favorite place for swimming for people from Surin and other nearby provinces. You can rent a raft and comfortably sleep on it while you are floating in the middle of the water. In addition, you can choose to enjoy other water activities such as banana boat, cycling boat, and water jumping to refresh yourself. After that, enjoy choosing a restaurant from the vast options available which you can even eat on a raft!

Tungkula Lake

Raft at Tungkula Lake

Tha Sawang Silk Weaving Village

Silk of Chan Soma Silk Weaving Group (ผ้าไหมจันทร์โสมาและเครือข่าย)

Silk of Chan Soma Silk Weaving Group (ผ้าไหมจันทร์โสมาและเครือข่าย)

Ban Chok Silver Village

Ban Chok Silver Village (หมู่บ้านทำเครื่องเงินบ้านโชค)

Ban Chok Silver Village (หมู่บ้านทำเครื่องเงินบ้านโชค)

Lastly, Ban Chok Silver Village which has a Khmer leader who came from Cambodia and takes refuge here. This is the first village in Thailand that produces silver beads. Another name for this kind of thing is Look Pra Kuem which comes from the Khmer language. This product has been passed down for many centuries. Silver bead is a material for making women’s accessories such as necklace, bracelet, earrings, belt, and etc. What set these accessories apart is the pattern and details of the silver beads. It has a unique charm, and this is the only place in Thailand that makes it. Most of the patterns resemble natural patterns like a lotus leaf, dok chan, sun, and etc. They also produce other silver-made tools and accessories here.

Other Interesting Information of Surin, Thailand

The motto for this province is “The Land of Elephants, Beautiful Silk, Magnificent Bead, Various Castles, Sweet Cabbage, Aromatic Jasmine Rice, and Great Culture”.

To get around here

You can use the three-wheel pedal tricycles and tuktuks.

For accommodation

There are a lot of budget hotels here that you can stay and homestays as well. The price is also quite nice with about 300 to 800 baht per night but different for homestays. Have a great stay with the elephant!

Source: https://thailandlocaltravel.com…

Lovely place…Nakhon Si Thammarat – The Land of Buddhism in the South of Thailand

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Nakhon Si Thammarat is a well-known province located in the southern region of Thailand. It is also the second largest province in its region and it has been dominated by Buddhism culture since the period of Srivijaya. There are ruins and significant buildings throughout the province from the time when it was a part of the Kingdom of Ligor and the province finally gained its independence on the fall of Ayutthaya. With this, ones can recognize the province as one of the most ancient cities of Thailand.

General Information about Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand

Other than the amazing culture that it clearly has, the province has one of the most abundant nature and vegetation in the southern region. You will be able to see many beautiful features in the province such as the amazing waterfalls and beaches.

To get to Nakhon Si Thammarat

The distance from the capital of Thailand to Nakhon Si Thammarat is about 610 kilometers or 380 miles and there are quite a few options you can choose to travel here.

The first most obvious choice to take a car as it is the second fastest option. The fastest option has to be the plane itself. There are two airlines that have Nakhon Si Thammarat as their destination which are Nok Air and Air Asia. Be sure to check the flight carefully when booking.

The famous attractions in Nakhon Si Thammarat

In this province, there are three main places that you must visit if you want to feel the sensation of the province itself.

Kanom National Park

The slower approach to the province is by taking the train. It could roughly take you around 12 to 14 hours to get here, so sit back and enjoy the view while you are at it. However, the most convenient choice to travel on the ground would be the bus. You can take the bus from Bangkok’s Southern Bus Terminal which will take you about 12 hours. Relax and you will be here in no time.

Beach at Kanom National Park (หาดที่อุทยานแห่งชาติหาดขนอม)

Beach at Kanom National Park (หาดที่อุทยานแห่งชาติหาดขนอม)

The first place is called Kanom National Park. This place contains many beaches with white soft sand accompanied by pine trees across the beaches. The water is clean and clear which is suitable for relaxation in various ways such as sunbathing, swimming, and sleeping under the shade. You can also dive to see the amazing and rich coral reefs.

However, the most famous beach in this province is Nai Pela Beach which is a beach that curves with the mountain like a crescent moon with a distance of 18 kilometers.

Dolphin at Kanom National Park (ปลาโลมาที่อุทยานแห่งชาติหาดขนอม)

Dolphin at Kanom National Park (ปลาโลมาที่อุทยานแห่งชาติหาดขนอม)

You might also meet pink or white-gray or Pacific humpback dolphins near the shore and when you are on the boat to visit nearby Kanom islands.

Baan Khiri Wong

Baan Khiri Wong (บ้านคีรีวง)

Baan Khiri Wong (บ้านคีรีวง)

Next stop is Baan Khiri Wong which is a community role-model that has been awarded eco-tourism management and village tourism in the homestay category. This place is located at Khao Lung Mountain ridge with a large river that cuts through the city. It is one of the places with the freshest air in Thailand. You will see the culture of the community in the way that they do their fruit farms.

You can also join them in making those natural painted fabrics or other activities such as basketry, processed fruit, and goods that are produced from coconut shells. You can rest at a homestay to experience the forest and mountain very closely.

Wat Phra That Wora Wiharn

Wat Phra That Maha Wora Wiharn (วัดพระธาตุมหาวรวิหาร)

Wat Phra That Maha Wora Wiharn (วัดพระธาตุมหาวรวิหาร)

This is the last place on the list that has a Chedi with a relic of the Buddha inside which is recognized as the symbol of the province. It is also one of the three holy special structures of the south in which the other two are located at Surat Thani and Yala. One of the important things in the province is the bell-shaped Chedi in which the end point of the Chedi is actually made of real gold. The Chedi itself is surrounded by 149 small Chedis. As the Chedi is famous for its holiness, people from every part of Thailand will come to pay their respect during Makabucha Day in March and Visakabucha Day in June. There will also be a parade to put some kind of fabric on top of the relic which is a big event of this province. If you have a chance to visit during those times, you are invited to come and make merit for yourself and families.

Local Tells

Let us move on to the recommended places by the locals which are not quite famous for tourists, but the locals sure love them a lot.

Khao Luang National Park

Khao Lung National Park

Khao Lung National Park

The first place to be recommended is Khao Luang National Park which has the highest mountain in all of the southern region of Thailand with a height of 1,835 meters. This national park is filled with abundant nature to the maximum, including various plants and wild animals.

Orchids at Khao Lung National Park (กล้วยไม้ที่อุทยานแห่งชาติเขาหลวง)

Orchids at Khao Lung National Park (กล้วยไม้ที่อุทยานแห่งชาติเขาหลวง)

Because of these characteristics, this place has been awarded as the natural tourism place of the year in 1998. There is also a natural pathway to the top of the mountain which is considered as one of the best natural pathways in Thailand.

In this path, you will be able to observe many ancient ferns that will surely take you back to the dinosaur age. Also, this is the place that contains quite a lot of orchids and one may consider this place to have the most orchids in the southern region. You will find more than 300 species of orchids here, including some rare species of the world!

Krung Ching Waterfall

Krung Ching Waterfall (น้ำตกกรุงชิง)

Krung Ching Waterfall (น้ำตกกรุงชิง)

The next place that you should visit in Khao Luang National Park is Krung Ching Waterfall which is a very famous waterfall in this province. It is a large waterfall with seven levels that you can take a picture. However, the highlight of this waterfall is its second level which is called Nan Fon San Ha. It is considered to be the most beautiful level out of all of them. Because of its beauty, this waterfall has been published on the 1,000-baht banknote of Thailand during King Rama IX reign.

Ban Nung Talung

Ban Nung Talung

Ban Nung Talung

If you want to see the culture of this province, Ban Nung Talung is the place to go. Nung Talung is the performing art and culture that is very famous in the southern region of Thailand.

This kind of performance uses the shadow from the Nung Talung or puppets to create a story which is combined with the singing of well-written poems in local accent and dialect. At this place, Uncle Suchart, as the people called him, is an artist that performs Nung Talung and he is considered to be the best artist in creating the picture of Nung Talung in the entire province! He is also the one who inherit the art of Nung Talung and perform it. His career in the performance of Nung Talung has also been recognized in both domestically and internationally.

Other than that, you can see the showcases of Nung Talung from many generations, eras, and nationalities in a museum located here. You can also watch some performances, including the demonstration in making Nung Talung.

Ban Nung Talung

Ban Nung Talung

If you feel like you want to take one of them home, you can buy one at a souvenir shop! However, if you want to buy more souvenir in this province, you can feel free to do so and there are many goods for your selection. Hand-crafted goods are very famous as a souvenir in this province. There is also something called Krueng Thom which consists of many types of goods such as rings, necklaces, bracelets, bags, and many more tools. Every detail on the goods is handcrafted entirely as well!

 

Other Interesting Information of Nakorn Si Thammarat

The motto for this province is “The Historical Town, The Golden Phra That, Plentiful Minerals, Three-Metal Nielloware, Numerous Arts and Temples, and Abundant Shrimps and Crabs.

To get around this province,

there are plenty of motorcycle taxis for you to take. There are also meter taxis and pedal taxis as well, but be sure to ask for the fare first before you get in. You can probably hire a songthaew to take you around for the day, but again, you must ask for the price beforehand!

For accommodation,

there are quite a lot of hotels you can choose to stay which are ranging from budget to luxury resorts or hotels. A budget hotel could cost you around 400 baht per night while the mid-range to luxury hotels is priced at 1,000 baht or more per night. Enjoy your journey!

source: https://thailandlocaltravel.com….

Trademarking the Future

The context of the CRISPR Cas 9 legal battle had all the elements of a good soap opera: powerhouse scientists with ambitions to literally rewrite human DNA, potentially billions of dollars for the taking, a race to make history, and a surprise twist involving an unknown group of Lithuanian researchers.

It’s rare for patent cases to receive so much attention. Rarer still for research institutions to face off in court. And considering that scientists found a multitude of other ways to use CRISPR while the case was being argued — suggesting the technique in question may be only one of many — it’s easy to wonder why the case (recently tried in a Federal Appeals Court) ignited such an intense argument between scientists, research institutions, and legal theorists.

A simple explanation is that the case re-opened conversations about the economics of potentially life-saving research. But even more, simply it asked: What is an invention? And what credit is needed to establish legacy?


Six years ago, two genetic researchers, Jennifer Doudna of UC Berkeley and Emmanuelle Charpentier at the University of Vienna, published a paper that sent shockwaves through nearly every sphere of the scientific community. The premise was straightforward enough: first, they drew everyone’s attention to the tool bacteria use to kill viruses (discovered in the ’80s). The mechanism works by creating a copy of the virus, and then moves through a cell’s system, using its copy to find virus matches. Once it finds a match, it uses a protein (Cas9) to cut the virus out. Then it either inserts new chromosomes into the genome or fuses the two cut ends together. Charpentier and Doudna isolated this genetic editing tool and used it to cut and paste genes in a test tube. The technique they outlined was faster and more precise than any previous genetic edit had ever been.

Scientists lost their minds.

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats — thankfully called CRISPR for short — sped up experiments that used to take years and completed them in weeks and days. Soon CRISPR Cas9 was shortening the growing season of tomatoes while expanding their size and boosting their flavor. A UK-based lab used CRISPR to wipe out an entire species of mosquitoes, removing their gene that produces female offspring. In Philadelphia, researchers cut out the deadly DNA in human cells infected with HIV. There are hopes that CRISPR Cas9 can “re-program” the genes that cause diseases like Alzheimer’s, autism, and cancer, while some fear the tool will bring designer babies and biogenetic terrorism in the near future. (It’s important to note that this isn’t possible with our current knowledge of genetics. Scientists still don’t know how every gene controls and relates to other genes — but CRISPR also provides a much more efficient way to study those relationships.)

At any rate, Doudna and Charpentier were on the rise. In 2015 they won the Life Sciences Breakthrough prize (to the tune of 3 million dollars) and rumors of an eventual Nobel were circling. But then the United States Patent and Trademark Office awarded the patented application of CRISPR Cas9 in eukaryotic cells to Feng Zhang at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.

Eukaryotic cells are cells with nucleuses. The cells controlling and changing plants, animals, you and me. The legal patent for applying CRISPR to many of the cells governing human health was not going to UC Berkeley or University of Vienna.

You can bet Berkeley and Vienna’s attorneys basically sprinted to the Patent and Trademark Office.


Forbes magazine estimates the value of the patent as somewhere in the realm of 265 million dollars, but experts suggest that if CRISPR lives up to the hype, its actual value could be in the billions. Beyond granting its holder the right to use the technique and sell use rights to corporations, the patent also legally establishes the original inventor.

Researchers were calling CRISPR Cas9, “the biological discovery of the century.” Holding that kind of patent could define a life, an institution. It’s the kind of achievement that gets your name in textbooks.

UC Berkeley and the University of Vienna had filed their patent application in May 2012. The Broad Institute filed in December that year. But Broad’s application was fast-tracked through a strategic — but risky — procedure known as “petition to make special”.

“So you can file a ‘petition to make special if you want a speedy review of your patent application. But!” Jacob Sherkow leans forward. “There are strategic considerations.”

Sherkow is a patent and intellectual property lawyer and professor at New York Law School. He has followed the case closely since its beginning and is able to explain convoluted patent terminology with all the excitement and style of Q showing James Bond the pros and cons of spy accessories.

Essentially, Zhang was limited to 20 claims with his patent, while Doudna and Charpentier filed 155 claims. “Usually when you prosecute patent applications, you get to say things like ‘Alright, dear examiner, you don’t like claim one? What about claim two? You don’t like claim three — I object to your analysis of claim 3!’” Sherkow throws his hand in the air and smiles. “But for ‘petitions to make special,’ the only thing you can take is an all-or-nothing vote. All yes,” he shrugs, “or all no.”

The patent office accepted all of the Broad Institute’s claims. When UC Berkeley protested the decision, Broad needed to prove that their application of CRISPR Cas9 was their invention — or in lawyer terms: that their invention did not “interfere” with Doudna and Charpentier’s invention. This made the case an interference procedure, which, while rare in patent law, happens with groundbreaking technology. For us non-lawyers: interference means an invention was not particularly inventive, that it was an obvious copy or extension of someone else’s invention so it “interfered” with theirs.

If a court decides there is no “interference” in an invention, then the court never listens to arguments over who the original inventor is — in this case, the different applications of CRISPR Cas9 are considered discrete inventions.


Towin a patent, the invention must meet three requirements. It must be newuseful, and non-obvious. For a year, both sides sent the court all of their “prior art” — journal articles, applications, studies, and so on, to prove the obviousness or novelty of the invention.

Right in the midst of what otherwise might have been a montage of lawyers preparing for a trial — a la Tom Cruise in A Few Good Men — a group of Lithuanian researchers, led by Virginijus Šikšnys, were suddenly awarded the CRISPR Cas9 patent for prokaryotic cells — the other major cell type, the kind without nucleuses that make up bacteria, among other things.

In the patent world, there is an 18-month secrecy statute surrounding all applications. Sherkow compares this lag of knowledge to the way we see a star from Earth. You’re never seeing the star as it is, but as it was when the light started traveling. For those looking at patents: “You are always dealing with an 18-month lag from reality,” he says. “You’re only seeing the light that was emanating 18 months ago.” Since the Lithuanians did not publish a paper prior to filing a patent application, none of the attorneys, institutions, researchers had any idea that Šikšnys actually filed his application two months before Berkeley.

(To be fair, Šikšnys had tried to publish his paper earlier — none of the local journals thought it was worth running.)

There was no fighting the Šikšnys patent. His came first and was very specific about its method. With one of two major cell types out of the running, all eyes turned toward the Berkeley vs. Broad dispute.


The hearing was held in a small room in Alexandria, Virginia on a wet day in early December of 2016. Fifty-five people crammed into Hearing Room A. Those unable to fit inside were forced to wait in the hall, raincoats dripping onto the floor.

Charpentier, Doudna and Zhang were not in attendance.

Each side took 20 minutes to present their case. Two months later, the Board awarded Zhang the patent. Their finding was that Doudna and Charpentier invented the technique of applying CRISPR Cas9 to cells in a test tube, while Zhang invented the technique of applying it to human DNA.

Berkeley quickly appealed.


Getting a sense of what was at stake is difficult. Sure, potentially billions of dollars could go along with this patent. But knowledge of CRISPR was expanding quickly beyond the Cas9 protein, and new techniques have the potential to be just as effective. While only 126 papers on CRISPR were published in 2012, by 2016 over 21,000 papers were in circulation. The slices of CRISPR patent pie might be getting smaller. Not only that, the technology is evolving so unprecedentedly fast that it’s impossible to know if the techniques will work in the ways researchers hope they will.

Just this year, a study found that Cas9 sometimes damages the genome. The scientists published their findings in June and stocks in CRISPR biotech companies fell dramatically.

Dr. Greg Licholai, a biotechnology consultant and co-director of the Yale Center for Digital Health, says that these findings are not shocking, but a typical part of science. Since CRISPR use increased so dramatically within such a short time, the discoveries weren’t tested and confirmed in the same way new scientific findings are typically evaluated. Licholai sees these recently published studies and warnings simply as evidence that the field is catching up to itself, “business as usual when it comes to science.”

In other words, the bugs might be worked out…but time will tell. In the meantime, the awards are flowing. In 2014, 2016 and 2017 Doudna, Charpentier and Zhang shared three awards while receiving others separately. The three also founded several CRISPR therapeutics companies, seeking to treat diseases such as autism and cancer. In an interesting turn, Doudna and Zhang had originally founded Editas Medicine together in 2013. Citing family obligations, Doudna left the Massachusetts-based corporation to start a company in her home state of California soon after Broad won the patent.

The argument at the Patent Trial and Appeal Board in April reveals the tension at the heart of the case. Yes, a lot of money was possibly on the line — but that doesn’t generally interest so many people across so many different fields. This case was exposing a fault line. Legal and scientific fields often determine standards of fact for countries and cultures. Yet in the case of CRISPR Cas9, the definitions of invention and discovery — nouns that often serve as the bedrock of science and law — could be contested, and were seemingly on trial themselves.


Berkeley hired a new, big-name attorney for the appeal — Donald Virilli, the former Solicitor General of the United States who successfully argued President Obama’s Affordable Care Act before the Supreme Court — and when he took the floor, the courtroom was packed once again.

Even listening to a recording of the proceeding, without having been present, you can feel the tension in the room. When Judge Kimberly Moore goes into a coughing fit, her casual request that Virilli continue argument since speakers were broadcasting the hearing to the back room is met with an unexpected roar of laughter, not unlike a sitcom’s laugh track. Virilli’s voice is actually shaking at points through his 15-minute argument, while Broad’s attorney, Raymond Nimrod, sounds like the epitome of calm assurance.

Virilli was the one facing an uphill legal battle. He needed to prove that the original court had weighed the evidence incorrectly. He insisted the patent should hinge on the discovery of CRISPR being a tool, that Doudna and Charpentier’s ability to demonstrate its application in a test tube — solving the “problem” — put Broad just a step away from applying CRISPR to human cells. The technique was the game changer — not where it was used.

“All of them faced with this problem took the conventional off-the-shelf techniques.” To make his point, Virilli starts throwing out terms like “codon optimization”, but before he can continue, Judge Moore interrupts.

“And guess what? They didn’t work.” Her voice is strained from her cold and she speaks faster. “So it took years and innovation. That’s how science works, Mr. Virilli!” Her voice is almost electric in the still courtroom. She outlines how Zhang used traditional experimentation and failure to refine and refine until successfully using CRISPR in human cells. The same way Doudna and Charpentier took the discovery of CRISPR’s existence and refined it into a tool.

Virilli tries to speak again, but the judge silences him and the hearing ends.

Berkeley lost the case, and in the process defined lines of where one discovery ends and another begins.

Having lost significant patents to both Broad and Šikšnys, UC Berkeley and University of Vienna are now left picking up the crumbs. In the legal world, Doudna and Charpentier are not likely to be big names, despite being the first ones to demonstrate CRISPR’s use. Simply put: what they accomplished in test tubes has very little legal value.


Since the court’s September decision, the attorneys and representatives of UC Berkeley, MIT, and Harvard have issued a slew of statements. The Broad Institute called upon everyone to join forces: “It is time for all institutions to move beyond litigation. We should work together to ensure wide, open access to this transformative technology.” Unsurprisingly, UC Berkeley suggested they would continue to look into their legal options, but chances of moving forward in the courts are slim to none.

While nearly everyone seemed to be arguing and poring over every detail of the case, the inventors themselves have remained almost completely silent. In her book on CRISPR, Doudna mentions the patents only briefly when describing the “heady time” that all of them experienced in the lab during 2012. “Only later would the contents and publication dates of these papers be dissected to support arguments in a dispute over CRISPR patent rights, a disheartening twist to what had begun as collegial interactions and genuine shared excitement about the implications of the research.”

In all interviews following the case, the three always shift the topic when patent rights come up. They don’t want to talk about their feelings — “disheartening” is the most open Doudna has ever been on the subject-they want to talk about CRISPR. About what’s next, and where the research could be going. They want to argue about what it should be used for, or outline what their lab is doing now.

The scientific community is continuing to recognize all the inventors, honoring them with awards and asking them to speak at key summits on gene editing. All research institutions involved are under agreement to share CRISPR Cas9 editing rights freely for education and non-profit purposes.

And while Charpentier, Doudna, and Zhang certainly must have felt something when the patent decisions were delivered, their only observable reaction was to stay at work — they never attended a single hearing. Instead, they remained in the lab, publishing papers on their most recent CRISPR discoveries, and conducting experiment after experiment. In the landmark 2012 paper that started it all, Doudna and Charpentier wrote that CRISPR Cas9, “highlights the potential to exploit the system”, the “system” being the genome of living things. It’s apparent that this is where the inventors would like the rest of us to keep our focus: on our future and the potential for what could be.

 

by Kaitlyn Nicholas

The Technology That Will Define 2019

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A year ago, I picked seven technologies that would play significant roles in 2018. Some of my predictions were correct, and some of them reappear on this list — 5G hasn’t quite happened yet, but we’re getting closer.

As George Saville, the 17th-century English statesman and essayist, once wrote, “The best qualification of a prophet is to have a good memory.” It’s a fancy way of saying the past is prologue, and no vision for the near future is possible without analyzing past trends. That’s what I’ve done to concoct these informed guesses about the state of tech in 2019.

Of course, there are bound to be surprises and off-base prognostications. Don’t sue me if things go a bit differently than expected.

1. Cryptocurrency

Bitcoin opened 2018 at almost $17,000 in value and exited at under $4,000. This does not mean the end of it or other emerging cryptocurrencies.

The year 2018 taught us that the broad concept behind cryptocurrency — the blockchain — could be useful elsewhere. Expect token experiments in bankingbusiness, and media to expand in 2019. Many will fail as token entrepreneurs struggle to connect offerings to real-world value. But immutable ledgers are attractive to an increasingly security-conscious world, and they will become the foundation of innumerable new ways of buying, selling, and accounting.

2. “Screen Time” Services

We loved social media, we overused it, and now we’re finding that it probably isn’t that good for us. In addition, whatever trust we once had in the world’s most popular social platform, Facebook, all but vanished in 2018. Thus, 2019 should bring a reconsideration of our obsession with sharing and those dopamine-producing likes and hearts.

Instead of measuring followers, we’ll start comparing screen times. Expectmore appshardware, and IRL services to reward us for the time we don’t spend online. Apple’s iOS Screen Time, Android’s Dashboard, and third-party apps like Hold are just the tip of the iceberg.

3. Cyberwarfare

World War III is upon us, but instead of boots on the ground, it’s all about binaries in the ether.

After Russia essentially — albeit secretly — declared war on the United States by undermining the 2016 presidential election, it and other insurgents have turned their attention to manipulating hearts, minds, elections, and even Brexit. The quietest worldwide conflagration will continue this year.

Educating the populace on how they’re being manipulated every single day through technology and social media will become a critical priority in 2019. P.W. Singer and Emerson T. Brooking’s LikeWar should become required reading in high schools and colleges.

4. Regulation

The year 2018 was a low point for privacy, with revelations that the most popular social media platform on the planet all but handed the keys to our personal profiles to a range of partners. Americans, following the General Data Protection Regulation in Europe, will demand change.

In 2019, we’ll see movement on the collection of bills from the U.S. House and Senate that are aimed at officially regulating the tech industry. They could eventually be combined into one overarching Personal Data Privacy Act of 2019.

This kind of policy will have broad, bipartisan support and perhaps grudging support in the tech sector. Assuming the legislation doesn’t overreach, the big question will be if the regulation-averse Trump White House will sign. If and when that happens, expect GDPR-level changes in how companies like Google, Facebook, and Amazon do business. You’ll like some of it — it will be harder for companies to use your data without explicit consent, for example — but regulations may also slow innovation.

5. Electric Self-Driving Cars

Most states now have some sort of self-driving automotive legislation on the books, and many new cars have enough built-in intelligence to do typical driving tasks. Still, the spread of autonomous driving was sporadic at best in 2018. This year could be a huge turning point.

States that have yet to get on board with the technology are being spurred by new federal guidelines enacted in September. In addition, Tesla’s Model 3, the bestselling sedan in the United States (by revenue, not total units sold), already has some of the most powerful autonomous driving technology on the road.

Expect new, all-electric Model 3 competitors and tests with self-driving-only lanes on some highways.

6. Apple’s Mobile Lead Shrinks

Every time I run Geekbench on the latest flagship phones from Apple, Samsung, Motorola, LG, and others, the iPhone comes out on top. Apple’s custom silicon isn’t just marginally more powerful than the Qualcomm CPUs most Android handsets are running — it’s leaps and bounds better.

That may change in 2019, as Intel and Qualcomm promise new, A.I.-infused mobile CPUs that could level the playing field. Obviously, handset performance is not solely defined by numbers in a benchmark. Apple’s A12 Bionic wins because it outperforms competitors on core tasks like video editing, gaming, and augmented reality. How Qualcomm and Intel’s next-gen mobile processors handle those tasks will define our mobile computing lives in 2019.

7. 5G

5G got off to a slower start than I expected in 2018, but the arrival of 5G-ready mobile CPUs and an improved infrastructure could mean a rapid rollout in 2019 — at least on the Android side. Rumors that Apple may wait to support the ultrafast mobile technology until 2020 could put a damper on 5G enthusiasm.

Unfortunately, Apple’s rumored decision might be a canny one, as it’s possible that the mismatch between 5G-ready handsets and available infrastructure may persist throughout 2019, pushing the Year of 5G into 2020 and beyond. In the meantime, don’t be fooled by tricky branding from the likes of AT&T.

8. Robots

Boston Dynamics’ “parkour bot” has me believing that 2019 will be the year of C-3PO — or something like it. Agile, humanoid robots with uncanny valley–busting, human-like faces will appear in more and more videos and perhaps a few pilot programs in offices and factories. Somewhere in the mix, we’ll see next-gen sexbots. They’ll be just as realistic and gross as you imagined. It’ll all be a far cry from Will Smith’s I, Robot, but it should also be the beginning of a reassociation of the word “android” with robots instead of phones.

9. Facial Recognition and Manipulation

Conversations around facial recognition will become more urgent in 2019, as the technology becomes more widespread and open to abuse. Programmers will start to scrub inherent biases out of systems, improving the underlying technology; companies like Amazon will continue to pitch facial recognition to the government; and with the emergence of deep fades, all of us will struggle mightily with the idea that imagery can never again be trusted.

10. AR, Not VR

Virtual reality isn’t here to stay. But augmented reality will break out in 2019, as the majority of flagship phones already support it.

Meanwhile, it’ll be a make-or-break year for the underwhelming Magic Leap headset, which might be doomed if Apple finally shows off the AR wearable everyone beliefs it’s been working on for years.

Do not expect Microsoft to introduce a HoloLens for everyone in 2019. However, the mixed reality experiences on third-party mixed reality headsets will vastly improve and add more tools for business and enterprise users, including Maquette, which helps people build prototype applications in real time.

Lightning Round

  • Apple put USB-C on the new iPad Pro line last year. Expect it to ditch the Lightning port and go with USB-C across its iPhone lineup in 2019.
  • The proliferation of OTT streaming services will continue in 2019 with more à la carte choices and must-see shows on subscription platforms from DisneyWarnerMedia, and everybody in between. It’ll be a confusing year, but that won’t stop more consumers from cutting the cable cord and leaving only broadband internet intact.
  • One academic’s insanely unethical CRISPR experiment is probably just the start. The proverbial double helix is out of the bottle, and 2019 will be filled with more gene-editing revelations.
  • As China closes its door to more of the world’s recycling refuse, waste will reach crisis levels. Expect the tech sector to pay closer attention to closed-loop manufacturing, where a device is reclaimed and used to build new ones.

source: https://medium.com

the best food have to try when visiting Thailand?

Maybe this article can help you:

Top 10 Thai Food

Thailand’s food is welcome for its profusion of exotic flavors and fragrances. When you walk in Bangkok, these flavors and fragrances will remind you of their special tastes. However, whether it be juicy pieces of grilled pork on a stick or a fiery bowl of ‘Tom Yum’ soup, we all have to start somewhere. And the top 10 selection of Thailand embrace all the typical cuisines.

1.Tom Kha Kai (Chicken in Coconut Soup)

Tom Kha Kai

This iconic soup infuses fiery chilies, thinly sliced young galangal, crushed shallots, stalks of lemongrass and tender strips of chicken. Different from many watery cuisines, lashings of coconut milk will soften its strong peppery taste. With fresh lime leaves topped off, it’s a sweet-smelling mixture, creamy and compelling.

2.Pad Thai (Thai style Fried Noodles)

pad-thai

Pad Thai (Thai style Fried Noodles) is known to the people from Cape Town to Khao San Road. After preparing a searing hot wok, put fistfuls of small, thin-shaped or wide-shaped noodles, crunchy bean sprouts, onion and egg into for several minutes. Of crouse, a quartet of accompanying condiments–fish sauce, sugar, chili powder, and finely ground peanuts, all of which will totally wake the taste.

3.Khao Pad

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Thai food is not always spicy, and the first and the main dish in the non-spicy Thai food is Kao (Khao) Pad. If you do not know what to order – order Kao Pad. You can find it on the street in Thailand, at the restaurants and everywhere.

Why Khao Pad is so popular? What can be better, than rice for Asian people, what can be better, than fried rice with a mix of vegetables and meat! Tourists love Kao Pad because it is not spicy, easy to find and easy to pronounce.

You can choose different kinds of Kao Pad in Thailand with chicken, shrimp, pork or vegetarian.

How to ask Kao Pad in Thailand:

  • Kao Pad – just fried rice
  • Kao Pad Kai – fried rice with chicken
  • Kao Pad Goong (Kung) – fried rice with shrimps
  • Kao Pad Moo (it pronounced as Muu) – fried rice with pork

Best Kao Pad must contain little bit onion, garlic, carrot, and egg. Sometimes, in Kao Pad can be added tomato. If you want to add fried egg separated in Thailand– just say, Kai Dao.

Cucumbers and spicy are added to Kao Pand optional.

4.Tom Yum Goong (Spicy Shrimp Soup)

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Tom yum or tom yam is a type of hot and sour Thai soup, usually cooked with shrimp (prawn). Tom yum has its origin in Thailand. In recent years, tom yum has been popularised around the world.

The words “tom yam” are derived from two Thai words. Tom refers to the boiling process, while yam refers to a Thai spicy and sour salad. Tom yum is characterized by its distinct hot and sour flavors, with fragrant spices and herbs generously used in the broth. The soup is also made with fresh ingredients such as lemongrass, kaffir lime leaves, galangal, lime juice, fish sauce, and crushed red chili peppers.

Commercial tom yum paste is made by crushing all the herb ingredients and stir-frying in oil. Seasoning and other preservative ingredients are then added. The paste is bottled or packaged and sold around the world. Tom yum flavored with the paste may have different characteristics from that made with fresh herb ingredients. The soup often includes meats such as chicken, beef, pork, or shrimp.

5.Gaeng Daeng (Red Curry)

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This authentic spicy coconut milk based red curry uses homemade red curry paste. Flavored with both fresh and dried spices, kaffir lime leaves and fresh sweet basil leaves it is a harmonious dish with chicken. Finish the cooking with the addition of Fish sauce to taste and serve with steamed jasmine rice.

6.Gaeng Keow Wan Kai (Green Chicken Curry)

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One of the signature Thai dishes that almost everyone loves is Thai green curry.  An immaculate blend of green curry paste combined with coconut cream to create a thick curry that goes extremely well with rice.

7.Yam Nua

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Yam Nua Yang dish (Spicy Thai Grilled Beef Salad) is one of the most popular appetizer dishes in Thailand and comes from the middle region. The original Yam Nua Yang version would use less or no vegetables and may include dry rice.  Additionally, he advised that the beef may be replaced with chicken fillets, fish fillets or shrimps.

The Yam Nua Yang dish (Spicy Thai Grilled Beef Salad) as per this recipe is quite hot, mild hot if you compare it to the Tom Yum soup I had, but nonetheless, hot!! So if you are not a big fan of spicy food, cut the chili to half. I also added cucumbers to the original recipe the chef gave me as I thought that gives it an added kick

8.Kai Med Ma Muang

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Another popular dish is the Kai Med Ma Muang (Chicken with cashew nuts), which is a winner among many tourists visiting Thailand. With its contrasting textures and balance of hot and sweet, it’s no wonder this is just another must-try dish not just in Thailand, but in Asia, as well.

9.Som Tum

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A popular Thai dish that showcases fresh vegetables is som tum Thai (ส้มตำไทย) or green papaya salad. This is one of our personal favorites and can be found anywhere in Thailand, from restaurants to food stalls.

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Som tum Thai is a fantastic raw Thai salad often made of shredded unripe papaya, sliced tomatoes, raw yardlong beans, peanuts, dried mini shrimp, and fresh garlic. Sometimes we find shreds of carrots and green or purple cabbage to add a pop of color.

A sweet, salty, tangy sauce made of sugar, lime juice, and fish sauce completes the dish. It can be easily altered by leaving out an ingredient or two (no shrimp for vegetarians), but don’t be afraid to try it in its original form.

This dish can be served quite spicy. Vendors typically have a bowl of hot chilies to add and the customer can request how many chilies they want. It may take a little coaxing to get the vendors to put in more than one chili for Western customers. We usually get two or three chilies.

The word for chili is prik. If you don’t want any chilies, say, Mai ao prik.” (I don’t want chilies.)

  • Som tum bpoo blpah rah is green papaya salad with whole baby fermented crabs and a pungent fish sauce
  • Som tum talae is seafood papaya salad and often has a mixture of shrimp, baby crab, squid, and mussels
  • Som tum mamuang is green mango salad
  • Som tum khao poht is corn salad
  • Tum daeng is cucumber salad

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10.Pad Krapow Moo Saap (Fried Basil and Pork)

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An incredibly popular ‘one plate’ dish for lunch or dinner, fried basil and pork is certainly one of the most popular Thai dishes. It is made in a piping hot wok with lots of holy basil leaves, large fresh chilli, pork, green beans, soy sauce and a little sugar. The minced, fatty pork is oily and mixes with the steamed white rice for a lovely fulfilling meal. It is often topped with a fried egg (kai dao) you will most likely be asked if you would like an egg with it. Be aware that most Thai people ask for lots of chilli in this dish so if you are not a fan of tingling lips, ask for you pad krapow ‘a little spicy’.

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Why is Thailand the most visited country in the world?

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I can tell you something according to my experience for traveling. Thailand is a really beautiful country, fully showing tropical exotic breathing.

There are so many accommodations. You can find an excellent hotel on the beaches with swimming pool, ocean viewing, and even Thai style spa and massage. Also, you can find a tent hotel in a resort where close to nature, you will have a chance to feel the fresh air there. Even you can find a luxury personal villa with widening garden and large personal swimming pool; they are not far away from the ocean, you can enjoy a luxury cruise ship. Wow, you might think they are very expensive for experiencing all of them? Absolutely nope.

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The Consumption in Thailand is very cheap if you are from the United States or some developed countries. You will find that’s easy to handle all of the fees needed in Thailand, whatever delicious food, souvenirs, activities or other transportation.

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Thailand is well-known as “Land of Smiles”. Why? They always give you the warmest, friendliest Smile, if you smile first; even they smile bigger and brighter than you when you smile first. They have the most innocent sense of humor and to be very innocent and gentle. Besides, you can enjoy very beautiful and pleasant scenery! The best way to experience the special Thailand tours is to try a Thailand Tour to experience personally; you will find more interesting Thailand Culture! It is really a warm and exotic country.

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When you stay in Thailand, and if you have enough time to have a long-time journey, that’s more convenient for travel around the whole of Southeast Asia. It is cheap and many flights in Bangkok; there are many beaches in Thailand when you finish your trip; nothing is better more than spending leisure time on Beaches!

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source: Aileen Song red.

Jewelry-making: Buffalo horns

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There’s no doubt how beautiful bracelets, necklaces, rings, earrings and furniture made of buffalo and cow horns are. Seeing people wearing pieces of jewelry that are made from horns is not too rare, but looking for these treasures’ makers may be a little too difficult to do.

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It’s not at all common to know jewelry makers who use animal horns as their products but Try Sokchan has been in the industry for almost 20 years now. And he is religiously keeping the industry alive.

Mr. Sokchan makes handmade jewelry and furniture using horns of buffalos and cows. He shared that there was little to no interest in such kind when he started out. There was no market, so there was no income from it.

“Nobody made these things before. When I started, I was earning barely enough for my needs. But I did not want to give this up. I tried to do as many products as I could and sold them. I just really wanted to continue doing it,” recalled Mr. Sokchan.

He got his training at Bassac for three months where he also worked for the non-government organization within three years. He said that during the training, he found it very hard to make the products as machines were not available. They made all things with their bare hands, using only a knife and axe to carve and cut the materials.

“It wasn’t as easy as the present process of making jewelry and furniture. There was no machine before to help me do my work. After I trained and worked there for years, I decided to temporarily stop. For around four to five years, I got a different job because there was no market for my jewelry. I had to find something stable for me to survive. But when I heard that there were certain shops looking for products made of horns, I immediately went back to the business,” Mr. Sokchan shared.

When he went back to his first career, Mr. Sokchan started with animal statues and images that were exported to other countries through orders. However, it held another set of the problem – the products were so big so it was hard to package them overseas. It was then we decided to focus on jewelry-making.

He said that he buys the buffalo and cow horns from abattoirs or slaughterhouses.

Jewelry-making involves many complicated processes. He added that he first has to decide on the shape of the jewelry. After he bends, brushes rub and smoothen the horns before he carves out specific designs.

Mr. Sokchan shared that he has done training to some young people in the previous years. However, most of his students had given up even before they mastered the craft. He said that doing such products takes patience, effort, talent and time, but his students didn’t try hard enough to learn jewelry-making.

“Some of my students stopped, maybe they thought that this skill is not important for them as they cannot earn much money like the other jobs so they decided to stay away from it. But now, I have a few students to help me. I gave them a salary for their hard work.”

“We also make products from silver and platinum, steel and bronze. It has become a little popular now because people are now interested to wear unique stuff such as these.”

Mr. Sokchan’s mother-in-law said, “I told him to stop making that jewelry because at that time no one came to buy them. He was earning too little to support his family. But in recent years, we have been selling more and more and people are starting to know us and our products. Now, we earn enough money to support our needs. I honestly think that it would not work before he has been doing it for almost 20 years. But now, I proved myself wrong.”

Mr. Sokchan’s workshop is located near Choeung Ek, while his shop is in Wat Phnom in Phnom Penh. Mr. Sokchan spends the entire day making the jewelry and his wife manages the shop.

Kourn Chenda, his wife, mans the Somorna Horn Handicrafts at Wat Phnom. They also used to have a shop at Sorya Center Point for six months before they decided to focus on their original location. Their products are priced from 50 cents to USD20, depending on the kind and size. People can also have customized designs – their names, perhaps – and get their jewelry after a week.

Since the products are made of animal horns, they can be used and kept for as long as 70 years. They will not easily break, though their natural colors may fade as time passes, shared Mr. Sokchan.

For now, Mr. Sokchan is also busy exporting his products to Asian and western countries.

Source: Srey Kumneth