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Trademarking the Future

The context of the CRISPR Cas 9 legal battle had all the elements of a good soap opera: powerhouse scientists with ambitions to literally rewrite human DNA, potentially billions of dollars for the taking, a race to make history, and a surprise twist involving an unknown group of Lithuanian researchers.

It’s rare for patent cases to receive so much attention. Rarer still for research institutions to face off in court. And considering that scientists found a multitude of other ways to use CRISPR while the case was being argued — suggesting the technique in question may be only one of many — it’s easy to wonder why the case (recently tried in a Federal Appeals Court) ignited such an intense argument between scientists, research institutions, and legal theorists.

A simple explanation is that the case re-opened conversations about the economics of potentially life-saving research. But even more, simply it asked: What is an invention? And what credit is needed to establish legacy?


Six years ago, two genetic researchers, Jennifer Doudna of UC Berkeley and Emmanuelle Charpentier at the University of Vienna, published a paper that sent shockwaves through nearly every sphere of the scientific community. The premise was straightforward enough: first, they drew everyone’s attention to the tool bacteria use to kill viruses (discovered in the ’80s). The mechanism works by creating a copy of the virus, and then moves through a cell’s system, using its copy to find virus matches. Once it finds a match, it uses a protein (Cas9) to cut the virus out. Then it either inserts new chromosomes into the genome or fuses the two cut ends together. Charpentier and Doudna isolated this genetic editing tool and used it to cut and paste genes in a test tube. The technique they outlined was faster and more precise than any previous genetic edit had ever been.

Scientists lost their minds.

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats — thankfully called CRISPR for short — sped up experiments that used to take years and completed them in weeks and days. Soon CRISPR Cas9 was shortening the growing season of tomatoes while expanding their size and boosting their flavor. A UK-based lab used CRISPR to wipe out an entire species of mosquitoes, removing their gene that produces female offspring. In Philadelphia, researchers cut out the deadly DNA in human cells infected with HIV. There are hopes that CRISPR Cas9 can “re-program” the genes that cause diseases like Alzheimer’s, autism, and cancer, while some fear the tool will bring designer babies and biogenetic terrorism in the near future. (It’s important to note that this isn’t possible with our current knowledge of genetics. Scientists still don’t know how every gene controls and relates to other genes — but CRISPR also provides a much more efficient way to study those relationships.)

At any rate, Doudna and Charpentier were on the rise. In 2015 they won the Life Sciences Breakthrough prize (to the tune of 3 million dollars) and rumors of an eventual Nobel were circling. But then the United States Patent and Trademark Office awarded the patented application of CRISPR Cas9 in eukaryotic cells to Feng Zhang at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.

Eukaryotic cells are cells with nucleuses. The cells controlling and changing plants, animals, you and me. The legal patent for applying CRISPR to many of the cells governing human health was not going to UC Berkeley or University of Vienna.

You can bet Berkeley and Vienna’s attorneys basically sprinted to the Patent and Trademark Office.


Forbes magazine estimates the value of the patent as somewhere in the realm of 265 million dollars, but experts suggest that if CRISPR lives up to the hype, its actual value could be in the billions. Beyond granting its holder the right to use the technique and sell use rights to corporations, the patent also legally establishes the original inventor.

Researchers were calling CRISPR Cas9, “the biological discovery of the century.” Holding that kind of patent could define a life, an institution. It’s the kind of achievement that gets your name in textbooks.

UC Berkeley and the University of Vienna had filed their patent application in May 2012. The Broad Institute filed in December that year. But Broad’s application was fast-tracked through a strategic — but risky — procedure known as “petition to make special”.

“So you can file a ‘petition to make special if you want a speedy review of your patent application. But!” Jacob Sherkow leans forward. “There are strategic considerations.”

Sherkow is a patent and intellectual property lawyer and professor at New York Law School. He has followed the case closely since its beginning and is able to explain convoluted patent terminology with all the excitement and style of Q showing James Bond the pros and cons of spy accessories.

Essentially, Zhang was limited to 20 claims with his patent, while Doudna and Charpentier filed 155 claims. “Usually when you prosecute patent applications, you get to say things like ‘Alright, dear examiner, you don’t like claim one? What about claim two? You don’t like claim three — I object to your analysis of claim 3!’” Sherkow throws his hand in the air and smiles. “But for ‘petitions to make special,’ the only thing you can take is an all-or-nothing vote. All yes,” he shrugs, “or all no.”

The patent office accepted all of the Broad Institute’s claims. When UC Berkeley protested the decision, Broad needed to prove that their application of CRISPR Cas9 was their invention — or in lawyer terms: that their invention did not “interfere” with Doudna and Charpentier’s invention. This made the case an interference procedure, which, while rare in patent law, happens with groundbreaking technology. For us non-lawyers: interference means an invention was not particularly inventive, that it was an obvious copy or extension of someone else’s invention so it “interfered” with theirs.

If a court decides there is no “interference” in an invention, then the court never listens to arguments over who the original inventor is — in this case, the different applications of CRISPR Cas9 are considered discrete inventions.


Towin a patent, the invention must meet three requirements. It must be newuseful, and non-obvious. For a year, both sides sent the court all of their “prior art” — journal articles, applications, studies, and so on, to prove the obviousness or novelty of the invention.

Right in the midst of what otherwise might have been a montage of lawyers preparing for a trial — a la Tom Cruise in A Few Good Men — a group of Lithuanian researchers, led by Virginijus Šikšnys, were suddenly awarded the CRISPR Cas9 patent for prokaryotic cells — the other major cell type, the kind without nucleuses that make up bacteria, among other things.

In the patent world, there is an 18-month secrecy statute surrounding all applications. Sherkow compares this lag of knowledge to the way we see a star from Earth. You’re never seeing the star as it is, but as it was when the light started traveling. For those looking at patents: “You are always dealing with an 18-month lag from reality,” he says. “You’re only seeing the light that was emanating 18 months ago.” Since the Lithuanians did not publish a paper prior to filing a patent application, none of the attorneys, institutions, researchers had any idea that Šikšnys actually filed his application two months before Berkeley.

(To be fair, Šikšnys had tried to publish his paper earlier — none of the local journals thought it was worth running.)

There was no fighting the Šikšnys patent. His came first and was very specific about its method. With one of two major cell types out of the running, all eyes turned toward the Berkeley vs. Broad dispute.


The hearing was held in a small room in Alexandria, Virginia on a wet day in early December of 2016. Fifty-five people crammed into Hearing Room A. Those unable to fit inside were forced to wait in the hall, raincoats dripping onto the floor.

Charpentier, Doudna and Zhang were not in attendance.

Each side took 20 minutes to present their case. Two months later, the Board awarded Zhang the patent. Their finding was that Doudna and Charpentier invented the technique of applying CRISPR Cas9 to cells in a test tube, while Zhang invented the technique of applying it to human DNA.

Berkeley quickly appealed.


Getting a sense of what was at stake is difficult. Sure, potentially billions of dollars could go along with this patent. But knowledge of CRISPR was expanding quickly beyond the Cas9 protein, and new techniques have the potential to be just as effective. While only 126 papers on CRISPR were published in 2012, by 2016 over 21,000 papers were in circulation. The slices of CRISPR patent pie might be getting smaller. Not only that, the technology is evolving so unprecedentedly fast that it’s impossible to know if the techniques will work in the ways researchers hope they will.

Just this year, a study found that Cas9 sometimes damages the genome. The scientists published their findings in June and stocks in CRISPR biotech companies fell dramatically.

Dr. Greg Licholai, a biotechnology consultant and co-director of the Yale Center for Digital Health, says that these findings are not shocking, but a typical part of science. Since CRISPR use increased so dramatically within such a short time, the discoveries weren’t tested and confirmed in the same way new scientific findings are typically evaluated. Licholai sees these recently published studies and warnings simply as evidence that the field is catching up to itself, “business as usual when it comes to science.”

In other words, the bugs might be worked out…but time will tell. In the meantime, the awards are flowing. In 2014, 2016 and 2017 Doudna, Charpentier and Zhang shared three awards while receiving others separately. The three also founded several CRISPR therapeutics companies, seeking to treat diseases such as autism and cancer. In an interesting turn, Doudna and Zhang had originally founded Editas Medicine together in 2013. Citing family obligations, Doudna left the Massachusetts-based corporation to start a company in her home state of California soon after Broad won the patent.

The argument at the Patent Trial and Appeal Board in April reveals the tension at the heart of the case. Yes, a lot of money was possibly on the line — but that doesn’t generally interest so many people across so many different fields. This case was exposing a fault line. Legal and scientific fields often determine standards of fact for countries and cultures. Yet in the case of CRISPR Cas9, the definitions of invention and discovery — nouns that often serve as the bedrock of science and law — could be contested, and were seemingly on trial themselves.


Berkeley hired a new, big-name attorney for the appeal — Donald Virilli, the former Solicitor General of the United States who successfully argued President Obama’s Affordable Care Act before the Supreme Court — and when he took the floor, the courtroom was packed once again.

Even listening to a recording of the proceeding, without having been present, you can feel the tension in the room. When Judge Kimberly Moore goes into a coughing fit, her casual request that Virilli continue argument since speakers were broadcasting the hearing to the back room is met with an unexpected roar of laughter, not unlike a sitcom’s laugh track. Virilli’s voice is actually shaking at points through his 15-minute argument, while Broad’s attorney, Raymond Nimrod, sounds like the epitome of calm assurance.

Virilli was the one facing an uphill legal battle. He needed to prove that the original court had weighed the evidence incorrectly. He insisted the patent should hinge on the discovery of CRISPR being a tool, that Doudna and Charpentier’s ability to demonstrate its application in a test tube — solving the “problem” — put Broad just a step away from applying CRISPR to human cells. The technique was the game changer — not where it was used.

“All of them faced with this problem took the conventional off-the-shelf techniques.” To make his point, Virilli starts throwing out terms like “codon optimization”, but before he can continue, Judge Moore interrupts.

“And guess what? They didn’t work.” Her voice is strained from her cold and she speaks faster. “So it took years and innovation. That’s how science works, Mr. Virilli!” Her voice is almost electric in the still courtroom. She outlines how Zhang used traditional experimentation and failure to refine and refine until successfully using CRISPR in human cells. The same way Doudna and Charpentier took the discovery of CRISPR’s existence and refined it into a tool.

Virilli tries to speak again, but the judge silences him and the hearing ends.

Berkeley lost the case, and in the process defined lines of where one discovery ends and another begins.

Having lost significant patents to both Broad and Šikšnys, UC Berkeley and University of Vienna are now left picking up the crumbs. In the legal world, Doudna and Charpentier are not likely to be big names, despite being the first ones to demonstrate CRISPR’s use. Simply put: what they accomplished in test tubes has very little legal value.


Since the court’s September decision, the attorneys and representatives of UC Berkeley, MIT, and Harvard have issued a slew of statements. The Broad Institute called upon everyone to join forces: “It is time for all institutions to move beyond litigation. We should work together to ensure wide, open access to this transformative technology.” Unsurprisingly, UC Berkeley suggested they would continue to look into their legal options, but chances of moving forward in the courts are slim to none.

While nearly everyone seemed to be arguing and poring over every detail of the case, the inventors themselves have remained almost completely silent. In her book on CRISPR, Doudna mentions the patents only briefly when describing the “heady time” that all of them experienced in the lab during 2012. “Only later would the contents and publication dates of these papers be dissected to support arguments in a dispute over CRISPR patent rights, a disheartening twist to what had begun as collegial interactions and genuine shared excitement about the implications of the research.”

In all interviews following the case, the three always shift the topic when patent rights come up. They don’t want to talk about their feelings — “disheartening” is the most open Doudna has ever been on the subject-they want to talk about CRISPR. About what’s next, and where the research could be going. They want to argue about what it should be used for, or outline what their lab is doing now.

The scientific community is continuing to recognize all the inventors, honoring them with awards and asking them to speak at key summits on gene editing. All research institutions involved are under agreement to share CRISPR Cas9 editing rights freely for education and non-profit purposes.

And while Charpentier, Doudna, and Zhang certainly must have felt something when the patent decisions were delivered, their only observable reaction was to stay at work — they never attended a single hearing. Instead, they remained in the lab, publishing papers on their most recent CRISPR discoveries, and conducting experiment after experiment. In the landmark 2012 paper that started it all, Doudna and Charpentier wrote that CRISPR Cas9, “highlights the potential to exploit the system”, the “system” being the genome of living things. It’s apparent that this is where the inventors would like the rest of us to keep our focus: on our future and the potential for what could be.

 

by Kaitlyn Nicholas

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The Technology That Will Define 2019

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A year ago, I picked seven technologies that would play significant roles in 2018. Some of my predictions were correct, and some of them reappear on this list — 5G hasn’t quite happened yet, but we’re getting closer.

As George Saville, the 17th-century English statesman and essayist, once wrote, “The best qualification of a prophet is to have a good memory.” It’s a fancy way of saying the past is prologue, and no vision for the near future is possible without analyzing past trends. That’s what I’ve done to concoct these informed guesses about the state of tech in 2019.

Of course, there are bound to be surprises and off-base prognostications. Don’t sue me if things go a bit differently than expected.

1. Cryptocurrency

Bitcoin opened 2018 at almost $17,000 in value and exited at under $4,000. This does not mean the end of it or other emerging cryptocurrencies.

The year 2018 taught us that the broad concept behind cryptocurrency — the blockchain — could be useful elsewhere. Expect token experiments in bankingbusiness, and media to expand in 2019. Many will fail as token entrepreneurs struggle to connect offerings to real-world value. But immutable ledgers are attractive to an increasingly security-conscious world, and they will become the foundation of innumerable new ways of buying, selling, and accounting.

2. “Screen Time” Services

We loved social media, we overused it, and now we’re finding that it probably isn’t that good for us. In addition, whatever trust we once had in the world’s most popular social platform, Facebook, all but vanished in 2018. Thus, 2019 should bring a reconsideration of our obsession with sharing and those dopamine-producing likes and hearts.

Instead of measuring followers, we’ll start comparing screen times. Expectmore appshardware, and IRL services to reward us for the time we don’t spend online. Apple’s iOS Screen Time, Android’s Dashboard, and third-party apps like Hold are just the tip of the iceberg.

3. Cyberwarfare

World War III is upon us, but instead of boots on the ground, it’s all about binaries in the ether.

After Russia essentially — albeit secretly — declared war on the United States by undermining the 2016 presidential election, it and other insurgents have turned their attention to manipulating hearts, minds, elections, and even Brexit. The quietest worldwide conflagration will continue this year.

Educating the populace on how they’re being manipulated every single day through technology and social media will become a critical priority in 2019. P.W. Singer and Emerson T. Brooking’s LikeWar should become required reading in high schools and colleges.

4. Regulation

The year 2018 was a low point for privacy, with revelations that the most popular social media platform on the planet all but handed the keys to our personal profiles to a range of partners. Americans, following the General Data Protection Regulation in Europe, will demand change.

In 2019, we’ll see movement on the collection of bills from the U.S. House and Senate that are aimed at officially regulating the tech industry. They could eventually be combined into one overarching Personal Data Privacy Act of 2019.

This kind of policy will have broad, bipartisan support and perhaps grudging support in the tech sector. Assuming the legislation doesn’t overreach, the big question will be if the regulation-averse Trump White House will sign. If and when that happens, expect GDPR-level changes in how companies like Google, Facebook, and Amazon do business. You’ll like some of it — it will be harder for companies to use your data without explicit consent, for example — but regulations may also slow innovation.

5. Electric Self-Driving Cars

Most states now have some sort of self-driving automotive legislation on the books, and many new cars have enough built-in intelligence to do typical driving tasks. Still, the spread of autonomous driving was sporadic at best in 2018. This year could be a huge turning point.

States that have yet to get on board with the technology are being spurred by new federal guidelines enacted in September. In addition, Tesla’s Model 3, the bestselling sedan in the United States (by revenue, not total units sold), already has some of the most powerful autonomous driving technology on the road.

Expect new, all-electric Model 3 competitors and tests with self-driving-only lanes on some highways.

6. Apple’s Mobile Lead Shrinks

Every time I run Geekbench on the latest flagship phones from Apple, Samsung, Motorola, LG, and others, the iPhone comes out on top. Apple’s custom silicon isn’t just marginally more powerful than the Qualcomm CPUs most Android handsets are running — it’s leaps and bounds better.

That may change in 2019, as Intel and Qualcomm promise new, A.I.-infused mobile CPUs that could level the playing field. Obviously, handset performance is not solely defined by numbers in a benchmark. Apple’s A12 Bionic wins because it outperforms competitors on core tasks like video editing, gaming, and augmented reality. How Qualcomm and Intel’s next-gen mobile processors handle those tasks will define our mobile computing lives in 2019.

7. 5G

5G got off to a slower start than I expected in 2018, but the arrival of 5G-ready mobile CPUs and an improved infrastructure could mean a rapid rollout in 2019 — at least on the Android side. Rumors that Apple may wait to support the ultrafast mobile technology until 2020 could put a damper on 5G enthusiasm.

Unfortunately, Apple’s rumored decision might be a canny one, as it’s possible that the mismatch between 5G-ready handsets and available infrastructure may persist throughout 2019, pushing the Year of 5G into 2020 and beyond. In the meantime, don’t be fooled by tricky branding from the likes of AT&T.

8. Robots

Boston Dynamics’ “parkour bot” has me believing that 2019 will be the year of C-3PO — or something like it. Agile, humanoid robots with uncanny valley–busting, human-like faces will appear in more and more videos and perhaps a few pilot programs in offices and factories. Somewhere in the mix, we’ll see next-gen sexbots. They’ll be just as realistic and gross as you imagined. It’ll all be a far cry from Will Smith’s I, Robot, but it should also be the beginning of a reassociation of the word “android” with robots instead of phones.

9. Facial Recognition and Manipulation

Conversations around facial recognition will become more urgent in 2019, as the technology becomes more widespread and open to abuse. Programmers will start to scrub inherent biases out of systems, improving the underlying technology; companies like Amazon will continue to pitch facial recognition to the government; and with the emergence of deep fades, all of us will struggle mightily with the idea that imagery can never again be trusted.

10. AR, Not VR

Virtual reality isn’t here to stay. But augmented reality will break out in 2019, as the majority of flagship phones already support it.

Meanwhile, it’ll be a make-or-break year for the underwhelming Magic Leap headset, which might be doomed if Apple finally shows off the AR wearable everyone beliefs it’s been working on for years.

Do not expect Microsoft to introduce a HoloLens for everyone in 2019. However, the mixed reality experiences on third-party mixed reality headsets will vastly improve and add more tools for business and enterprise users, including Maquette, which helps people build prototype applications in real time.

Lightning Round

  • Apple put USB-C on the new iPad Pro line last year. Expect it to ditch the Lightning port and go with USB-C across its iPhone lineup in 2019.
  • The proliferation of OTT streaming services will continue in 2019 with more à la carte choices and must-see shows on subscription platforms from DisneyWarnerMedia, and everybody in between. It’ll be a confusing year, but that won’t stop more consumers from cutting the cable cord and leaving only broadband internet intact.
  • One academic’s insanely unethical CRISPR experiment is probably just the start. The proverbial double helix is out of the bottle, and 2019 will be filled with more gene-editing revelations.
  • As China closes its door to more of the world’s recycling refuse, waste will reach crisis levels. Expect the tech sector to pay closer attention to closed-loop manufacturing, where a device is reclaimed and used to build new ones.

source: https://medium.com

the best food have to try when visiting Thailand?

Maybe this article can help you:

Top 10 Thai Food

Thailand’s food is welcome for its profusion of exotic flavors and fragrances. When you walk in Bangkok, these flavors and fragrances will remind you of their special tastes. However, whether it be juicy pieces of grilled pork on a stick or a fiery bowl of ‘Tom Yum’ soup, we all have to start somewhere. And the top 10 selection of Thailand embrace all the typical cuisines.

1.Tom Kha Kai (Chicken in Coconut Soup)

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This iconic soup infuses fiery chilies, thinly sliced young galangal, crushed shallots, stalks of lemongrass and tender strips of chicken. Different from many watery cuisines, lashings of coconut milk will soften its strong peppery taste. With fresh lime leaves topped off, it’s a sweet-smelling mixture, creamy and compelling.

2.Pad Thai (Thai style Fried Noodles)

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Pad Thai (Thai style Fried Noodles) is known to the people from Cape Town to Khao San Road. After preparing a searing hot wok, put fistfuls of small, thin-shaped or wide-shaped noodles, crunchy bean sprouts, onion and egg into for several minutes. Of crouse, a quartet of accompanying condiments–fish sauce, sugar, chili powder, and finely ground peanuts, all of which will totally wake the taste.

3.Khao Pad

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Thai food is not always spicy, and the first and the main dish in the non-spicy Thai food is Kao (Khao) Pad. If you do not know what to order – order Kao Pad. You can find it on the street in Thailand, at the restaurants and everywhere.

Why Khao Pad is so popular? What can be better, than rice for Asian people, what can be better, than fried rice with a mix of vegetables and meat! Tourists love Kao Pad because it is not spicy, easy to find and easy to pronounce.

You can choose different kinds of Kao Pad in Thailand with chicken, shrimp, pork or vegetarian.

How to ask Kao Pad in Thailand:

  • Kao Pad – just fried rice
  • Kao Pad Kai – fried rice with chicken
  • Kao Pad Goong (Kung) – fried rice with shrimps
  • Kao Pad Moo (it pronounced as Muu) – fried rice with pork

Best Kao Pad must contain little bit onion, garlic, carrot, and egg. Sometimes, in Kao Pad can be added tomato. If you want to add fried egg separated in Thailand– just say, Kai Dao.

Cucumbers and spicy are added to Kao Pand optional.

4.Tom Yum Goong (Spicy Shrimp Soup)

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Tom yum or tom yam is a type of hot and sour Thai soup, usually cooked with shrimp (prawn). Tom yum has its origin in Thailand. In recent years, tom yum has been popularised around the world.

The words “tom yam” are derived from two Thai words. Tom refers to the boiling process, while yam refers to a Thai spicy and sour salad. Tom yum is characterized by its distinct hot and sour flavors, with fragrant spices and herbs generously used in the broth. The soup is also made with fresh ingredients such as lemongrass, kaffir lime leaves, galangal, lime juice, fish sauce, and crushed red chili peppers.

Commercial tom yum paste is made by crushing all the herb ingredients and stir-frying in oil. Seasoning and other preservative ingredients are then added. The paste is bottled or packaged and sold around the world. Tom yum flavored with the paste may have different characteristics from that made with fresh herb ingredients. The soup often includes meats such as chicken, beef, pork, or shrimp.

5.Gaeng Daeng (Red Curry)

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This authentic spicy coconut milk based red curry uses homemade red curry paste. Flavored with both fresh and dried spices, kaffir lime leaves and fresh sweet basil leaves it is a harmonious dish with chicken. Finish the cooking with the addition of Fish sauce to taste and serve with steamed jasmine rice.

6.Gaeng Keow Wan Kai (Green Chicken Curry)

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One of the signature Thai dishes that almost everyone loves is Thai green curry.  An immaculate blend of green curry paste combined with coconut cream to create a thick curry that goes extremely well with rice.

7.Yam Nua

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Yam Nua Yang dish (Spicy Thai Grilled Beef Salad) is one of the most popular appetizer dishes in Thailand and comes from the middle region. The original Yam Nua Yang version would use less or no vegetables and may include dry rice.  Additionally, he advised that the beef may be replaced with chicken fillets, fish fillets or shrimps.

The Yam Nua Yang dish (Spicy Thai Grilled Beef Salad) as per this recipe is quite hot, mild hot if you compare it to the Tom Yum soup I had, but nonetheless, hot!! So if you are not a big fan of spicy food, cut the chili to half. I also added cucumbers to the original recipe the chef gave me as I thought that gives it an added kick

8.Kai Med Ma Muang

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Another popular dish is the Kai Med Ma Muang (Chicken with cashew nuts), which is a winner among many tourists visiting Thailand. With its contrasting textures and balance of hot and sweet, it’s no wonder this is just another must-try dish not just in Thailand, but in Asia, as well.

9.Som Tum

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A popular Thai dish that showcases fresh vegetables is som tum Thai (ส้มตำไทย) or green papaya salad. This is one of our personal favorites and can be found anywhere in Thailand, from restaurants to food stalls.

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Som tum Thai is a fantastic raw Thai salad often made of shredded unripe papaya, sliced tomatoes, raw yardlong beans, peanuts, dried mini shrimp, and fresh garlic. Sometimes we find shreds of carrots and green or purple cabbage to add a pop of color.

A sweet, salty, tangy sauce made of sugar, lime juice, and fish sauce completes the dish. It can be easily altered by leaving out an ingredient or two (no shrimp for vegetarians), but don’t be afraid to try it in its original form.

This dish can be served quite spicy. Vendors typically have a bowl of hot chilies to add and the customer can request how many chilies they want. It may take a little coaxing to get the vendors to put in more than one chili for Western customers. We usually get two or three chilies.

The word for chili is prik. If you don’t want any chilies, say, Mai ao prik.” (I don’t want chilies.)

  • Som tum bpoo blpah rah is green papaya salad with whole baby fermented crabs and a pungent fish sauce
  • Som tum talae is seafood papaya salad and often has a mixture of shrimp, baby crab, squid, and mussels
  • Som tum mamuang is green mango salad
  • Som tum khao poht is corn salad
  • Tum daeng is cucumber salad

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10.Pad Krapow Moo Saap (Fried Basil and Pork)

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An incredibly popular ‘one plate’ dish for lunch or dinner, fried basil and pork is certainly one of the most popular Thai dishes. It is made in a piping hot wok with lots of holy basil leaves, large fresh chilli, pork, green beans, soy sauce and a little sugar. The minced, fatty pork is oily and mixes with the steamed white rice for a lovely fulfilling meal. It is often topped with a fried egg (kai dao) you will most likely be asked if you would like an egg with it. Be aware that most Thai people ask for lots of chilli in this dish so if you are not a fan of tingling lips, ask for you pad krapow ‘a little spicy’.

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Why is Thailand the most visited country in the world?

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I can tell you something according to my experience for traveling. Thailand is a really beautiful country, fully showing tropical exotic breathing.

There are so many accommodations. You can find an excellent hotel on the beaches with swimming pool, ocean viewing, and even Thai style spa and massage. Also, you can find a tent hotel in a resort where close to nature, you will have a chance to feel the fresh air there. Even you can find a luxury personal villa with widening garden and large personal swimming pool; they are not far away from the ocean, you can enjoy a luxury cruise ship. Wow, you might think they are very expensive for experiencing all of them? Absolutely nope.

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The Consumption in Thailand is very cheap if you are from the United States or some developed countries. You will find that’s easy to handle all of the fees needed in Thailand, whatever delicious food, souvenirs, activities or other transportation.

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Thailand is well-known as “Land of Smiles”. Why? They always give you the warmest, friendliest Smile, if you smile first; even they smile bigger and brighter than you when you smile first. They have the most innocent sense of humor and to be very innocent and gentle. Besides, you can enjoy very beautiful and pleasant scenery! The best way to experience the special Thailand tours is to try a Thailand Tour to experience personally; you will find more interesting Thailand Culture! It is really a warm and exotic country.

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When you stay in Thailand, and if you have enough time to have a long-time journey, that’s more convenient for travel around the whole of Southeast Asia. It is cheap and many flights in Bangkok; there are many beaches in Thailand when you finish your trip; nothing is better more than spending leisure time on Beaches!

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source: Aileen Song red.

Apa Itu Zorpia Dan Bagaimana Memusnahkannya?

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Siapa yang email nya di penuhi dengan pesan di atas? Pokoknya bisa jadi beberapa kali sehari akan ada pesan masuk dan isinya zorpia. Lagi-lagi zorpia!

Zorpia, zorpia, zorpia, apa sih itu?

Website porno? Website ajaran sesat? Tempat belanja online? Dating site? Huh? Apaan sih?

Screenshot - 12_13_2015 , 12_20_32 AM

Hold on guys, jangan sibuk menebak tidak jelas seperti itu. Zorpia sama sekali bukan website porno, bukan pula website ajaran sesat, bukan tempat cari jodoh (bisa jadi sih), apalagi belanja. . . zorpia yang memiliki tampilan seperti gambar di atas itu tidak lain adalah sebuah media sosial.

Konsep yang di pakai zorpia pada dasarnya setipe dengan facebook. Tapi gosipnya, halaman media sosial tersebut tidak semenarik dan bagus facebook. Zorpia masih jauh di belakang facebook.

Readers: Lalu ada masalah apa sih, kok zorpia setiap saat masuk ke kotak masuk email kita? Ada apa? Answer me! Ada apa?

Vallendri: Iklan dodol! *ups* Ha ha ha ha

Ya. . . pesan yang terus-terusan masuk ke kotak masuk kita itu hanyalah iklan.

Lalu, bagaimana membasmi iklan dari zorpia ini?

Uhm, saya benar-benar ingin memberi tips panjang lebar dengan langkah-langkah yang panjang dan pintar, tapi sayangnya hanya dengan memasukkan pesan tersebut ke SPAM saja sudah memecahkan masalah.

Klik pesannya, masukkan ke spam, DIJAMIN, tidak akan ada lagi pesan dari zorpia. Ha ha ha ha!

Semoga membantu ya

Membuat SKCK online di MABES POLRI untuk apply visa study

Saya membuat SKCK (Surat Keterangan Catatan Kepolisian) untuk  keperluan membuat Visa Study di Thailand

Pertama2 saya mengisi formulir SKCK Online di http://skck.polri.go.id/

Lalu klik “PENDAFTARAN SKCK ONLINE” (http://skck.polri.go.id/registrasi ) .

Setelah itu ada 4 step yang harus diisi. 

Untuk pertanyaan nomor 1, pilih jawaban “Mabes Polri – Penerbitan Visa”.

Setelah semua diisi dengan lengkap, saya mendapat nomor registrasi dan saya print – untuk tanda bukti di loket – bahwa saya sudah mengisi formulir secara online.

(Pengisian formulir secara online sangat bermanfaat dan sangat menghemat waktu pada saat kita datang ke Mabes nanti).

Saya mengisi formulir online pada tanggal 13 Januari 2018 dan nomor registrasi tersebut berlaku sampai tanggal 18 Januari 2018. 

Kalau sampai masa berlaku habis dan kita belum sempat datang ke Mabes, nomor registrasi tersebut akan hangus dan kita harus melakukan registrasi ulang.

Pada tanggal 15 Januari 2018 saya berangkat ke Mabes Polri di Jl. Trunojoyo 3 Kebayoran Baru. Jakarta Selatan (Dekat Blok M).

Saya langsung menuju ke Gedung INAFIS untuk pengambilan rumus sidik jari.

Sebelum pengambilan cap 10 jari , saya mengisi formulir data diri dan menyerahkan pas photo 4×6 dengan latar belakang warna merah (1 lembar).

Setelah sidik jari selesai, saya mendapat kartu rumus sidik jari. 

Kartu ini berlaku seumur hidup dan berlaku di seluruh dunia.

Jadi harap disimpan baik-baik.

Setelah itu, saya pergi ke loket pelayanan SKCK – dimana gedung nya berbeda dengan gedung INAFIS.

Tapi jangan khawatir, kalau belum tau, tanya aja sama petugas disana. Petugasnya baik-baik ko 🙂

Jangan lupa pake sepatu dan pakaian formal

(just in case saya pake sendal sepatu ga dikasih izin masuk akhirnya atas kebaikan polisi piket jaga boleh masuk tp kudu pakai kaoskaki, untungnya sekitar situ ada penjual kaki lima yg jual kaoskaki, klo ngga kyanya kudu sewa sepatu sama tukang parkir sekitaran situ.

Kalau bawa mobil sendiri dan tidak punya kartu anggota atau member, mobil tidak boleh masuk ke dalam Mabes. Jadi harus parkir di luar. Tapi gak jauh ko 🙂

Setelah sampai di Baintelkam Polri yang berada di Gedung D lantai 1, saya masuk ke tempat pelayanan masyarakat. 

Setelah masuk kedalam ruangan tersebut, saya mengambil tiket antrian yang berada di sebelah kanan pintu masuk.

Saya sarankan untuk berangkat pagi-pagi supaya tidak terlalu lama mengantri.

Mabes Polri sudah buka dari jam 8 pagi sampai jam 2.30 siang, dan jam istirahat dari jam 12 sampai jam 1 siang, setiap hari Senin sampai Jumat.

Setelah menungu agak lumayan lama 😛 , nomor antrian saya dipanggil juga dan saya menuju ke loket.

Disitu saya ditanya mau kemana dan untuk keperluan apa.

Lalu saya jawab pertanyaan tersebut dan saya menunjukkan semua dokumen yang sudah saya siapkan:

1. Foto copy KTP

2. Foto copy Paspor

3. Foto copy Akte Lahir

4. Foto copy Kartu Keluarga

5. Pas Photo 4×6 dengan latar belakang warna merah (6 lembar)

6. Foto copy kartu rumus sidik jari yang baru saja saya dapat dari gedung INAFIS tadi. 

    (Di dekat loket pelayanan SKCK ada tempat foto copy).

7. Foto copy nomor registrasi pengisian SKCK online.

Saya sarankan foto copy masing2 dokumen sebanyak 2 lembar.

Walaupun yang diserahkan ke loket nanti hanya masing2 satu lembar, (hanya untuk berjaga2 saja).

Saat itu saya tidak membawa surat pengantar dari RT/RW dan dari Kelurahan, dan ternyata surat pengantar tersebut tidak diperlukan, Alhamdulillah saya ngga perlu modar mandir ke Kaltim lagi.

Saya juga membawa semua dokumen2 yang aslinya. Tapi mereka tidak meminta dokumen yang asli. Tapi saya sarankan untuk membawa dokumen aslinya juga, siapa tau diperlukan.

Setelah semua dokumen saya serahkan, saya disuruh untuk menunggu.

Setelah menunggu beberapa menit, nama saya dipanggil untuk melakukan foto dan pengambilan sidik jari lagi dan tanda tangan.

Lalu saya menunggu lagi. Setelah beberapa menit, saya dipanggil lagi untuk mengecek apakah data2 yang mereka masukkan sudah benar atau belum. Setelah saya cek dan semuanya oke, lalu saya disuruh menunggu lagi.

Setelah menunggu beberapa menit, saya dipanggil lagi. Saya kira sudah selesai, ternyata belum hehe

saya sdh membawa foto hasil cetak studio tp ternyata tidak terpakai, petugas mempersilahkan sy foto langsung disana.

Lalu saya disuruh menunggu lagi. Setelah beberapa menit, saya dipanggil dan disuruh membayar Rp. 30.000 untuk biaya SKCK.

Setelah itu, saya mendapatkan SKCK saya. 

Yeayyy… setelah menunggu dan menunggu beberapa menit yang berulang-ulang, hahah – akhirnya jadi juga 🙂

SKCK tersebut berlaku untuk 6 bulan kedepan. Kalau memang setelah masa berlaku SKCK tersebut habis – dan kita masih memerlukannya, kita bisa perpanjang SKCK tanpa harus melakukan sidik jari lagi, Karena sidik jari hanya dilakukan satu kali dan mereka sudah punya rekaman sidik jari kita.

Demikianlah pengalaman saya mengurus pembuatan SKCK.
Semoga bermanfaat dan terima kasih banyak.

Alhamdulillahirobbil’alamin.

-hardie-

Membuat SKCK online di MABES POLRI untuk apply visa study

Moday, 15 January 2018

SKCK Online untuk membuat Visa Study

Saya membuat SKCK (Surat Keterangan Catatan Kepolisian) untuk  keperluan membuat Visa Study di Thailand

Pertama2 saya mengisi formulir SKCK Online di http://skck.polri.go.id/

Lalu klik “PENDAFTARAN SKCK ONLINE” (http://skck.polri.go.id/registrasi ) .

Setelah itu ada 4 step yang harus diisi. 

Untuk pertanyaan nomor 1, pilih jawaban “Mabes Polri – Penerbitan Visa”.

Setelah semua diisi dengan lengkap, saya mendapat nomor registrasi dan saya print – untuk tanda bukti di loket – bahwa saya sudah mengisi formulir secara online.

(Pengisian formulir secara online sangat bermanfaat dan sangat menghemat waktu pada saat kita datang ke Mabes nanti).

Saya mengisi formulir online pada tanggal 13 Januari 2018 dan nomor registrasi tersebut berlaku sampai tanggal 18 Januari 2018. 

Kalau sampai masa berlaku habis dan kita belum sempat datang ke Mabes, nomor registrasi tersebut akan hangus dan kita harus melakukan registrasi ulang.

Pada tanggal 15 Januari 2018 saya berangkat ke Mabes Polri di Jl. Trunojoyo 3 Kebayoran Baru. Jakarta Selatan (Dekat Blok M).

Saya langsung menuju ke Gedung INAFIS untuk pengambilan rumus sidik jari.

Sebelum pengambilan cap 10 jari , saya mengisi formulir data diri dan menyerahkan pas photo 4×6 dengan latar belakang warna merah (1 lembar).

Setelah sidik jari selesai, saya mendapat kartu rumus sidik jari. 

Kartu ini berlaku seumur hidup dan berlaku di seluruh dunia.

Jadi harap disimpan baik-baik.

Setelah itu, saya pergi ke loket pelayanan SKCK – dimana gedung nya berbeda dengan gedung INAFIS.

Tapi jangan khawatir, kalau belum tau, tanya aja sama petugas disana. Petugasnya baik-baik ko 🙂

Jangan lupa pake sepatu dan pakaian formal

(just in case saya pake sendal sepatu ga dikasih izin masuk akhirnya atas kebaikan polisi piket jaga boleh masuk tp kudu pakai kaoskaki, untungnya sekitar situ ada penjual kaki lima yg jual kaoskaki, klo ngga kyanya kudu sewa sepatu sama tukang parkir sekitaran situ.

Kalau bawa mobil sendiri dan tidak punya kartu anggota atau member, mobil tidak boleh masuk ke dalam Mabes. Jadi harus parkir di luar. Tapi gak jauh ko 🙂

Setelah sampai di Baintelkam Polri yang berada di Gedung D lantai 1, saya masuk ke tempat pelayanan masyarakat. 

Setelah masuk kedalam ruangan tersebut, saya mengambil tiket antrian yang berada di sebelah kanan pintu masuk.

Saya sarankan untuk berangkat pagi-pagi supaya tidak terlalu lama mengantri.

Mabes Polri sudah buka dari jam 8 pagi sampai jam 2.30 siang, dan jam istirahat dari jam 12 sampai jam 1 siang, setiap hari Senin sampai Jumat.

Setelah menungu agak lumayan lama 😛 , nomor antrian saya dipanggil juga dan saya menuju ke loket.

Disitu saya ditanya mau kemana dan untuk keperluan apa.

Lalu saya jawab pertanyaan tersebut dan saya menunjukkan semua dokumen yang sudah saya siapkan:

1. Foto copy KTP

2. Foto copy Paspor

3. Foto copy Akte Lahir

4. Foto copy Kartu Keluarga

5. Pas Photo 4×6 dengan latar belakang warna merah (6 lembar)

6. Foto copy kartu rumus sidik jari yang baru saja saya dapat dari gedung INAFIS tadi. 

    (Di dekat loket pelayanan SKCK ada tempat foto copy).

7. Foto copy nomor registrasi pengisian SKCK online.

Saya sarankan foto copy masing2 dokumen sebanyak 2 lembar.

Walaupun yang diserahkan ke loket nanti hanya masing2 satu lembar, (hanya untuk berjaga2 saja).

Saat itu saya sudah membawa surat pengantar dari RT/RW dan dari Kelurahan, tetapi ternyata surat pengantar tersebut tidak diperlukan, Alhamdulillah saya ngga perlu modar mandir ke Kaltim lagi.

Tapi untuk berjaga2 – sebaiknya surat pengantar tersebuat di bawa. (siapa tau – lain petugas, lain juga aturannya. Jadi dari pada nanti bolak balik, lebih baik kita sudah siapkan).

Saya juga membawa semua dokumen2 yang aslinya. Tapi mereka tidak meminta dokumen yang asli. Tapi saya sarankan untuk membawa dokumen aslinya juga, siapa tau diperlukan.

Setelah semua dokumen saya serahkan, saya disuruh untuk menunggu.

Setelah menunggu beberapa menit, nama saya dipanggil untuk melakukan foto dan pengambilan sidik jari lagi dan tanda tangan.

Lalu saya menunggu lagi. Setelah beberapa menit, saya dipanggil lagi untuk mengecek apakah data2 yang mereka masukkan sudah benar atau belum. Setelah saya cek dan semuanya oke, lalu saya disuruh menunggu lagi.

Setelah menunggu beberapa menit, saya dipanggil lagi. Saya kira sudah selesai, ternyata belum cinttt. 

Karena foto yang tadi saya lakukan hasilnya gelap, jadi mereka memberi saran untuk memakai pas photo yang saya bawa saja. Oke, saya sih setuju aja asalkan semuanya baik2 aja.

Lalu saya disuruh menunggu lagi. Setelah beberapa menit, saya dipanggil dan disuruh membayar Rp. 30.000 untuk biaya SKCK.

Setelah itu, saya mendapatkan SKCK saya. 

Yeayyy… setelah menunggu dan menunggu beberapa menit yang berulang-ulang, hahah – akhirnya jadi juga 🙂

SKCK tersebut berlaku untuk 6 bulan kedepan. Kalau memang setelah masa berlaku SKCK tersebut habis – dan kita masih memerlukannya, kita bisa perpanjang SKCK tanpa harus melakukan sidik jari lagi, Karena sidik jari hanya dilakukan satu kali dan mereka sudah punya rekaman sidik jari kita.

Demikianlah pengalaman saya mengurus pembuatan SKCK.
Semoga bermanfaat dan terima kasih banyak..keep smiling 🙂

-Hardie-

Untuk Apa Manusia Hidup ? Pertanyaan Mudah Yang Susah Dijawab

Salah satu inti ajaran Islam adalah membimbing manusia menemukan tujuan hidup yang sebenarnya. Islam mengajak manusia untuk merenungi satu pertanyaan yang paling mendasar bagi setiap orang, yaitu untuk apa manusia hidup di dunia ini. Pertanyaan ini tentu memerlukan sebuah jawaban yang tepat. Karena jika manusia tidak tepat dalam menjawabnya, maka manusia akan gagal dalam hidupnya. Jika manusia gagal dalam hidupnya di dunia maka manusia juga akan gagal di akhirat kelak.

Bagaimanakah cara manusia menjawab pertanyaan itu? Ada sebagian orang yang mencari jawabannya dengan semata-mata mengandalkan akal. Ternyata hasilnya, tiap-tiap orang memiliki pendapat yang berbeda-beda. Ada yang berpendapat hidup ini untuk mencari kekekayaan dan kesejahteraan hidup, ada yang berpendapat hidup ini untuk mencari kekuasaan dan keunggulan atas manusia yang lain, ada yang berpendapat hidup ini untuk membangun peradaban yang maju, ada juga yang berpendapat hidup ini untuk mencari berbagai kesenangan dan kenikmatan.

Dan masih banyak lagi berbagai pendapat lain, sesuai hasil pemikiran masing-masing. Kalau kita perhatikan, pertanyaan di atas sebenarnya cukup sederhana namun ternyata sulit menjawabnya. Bukan saja akal manusia tidak mampu menjawabnya, bahkan jika ditanyakan kepada banyak orang maka muncul perbedaan pendapat. Rupanya akal manusia memiliki kelemahan, tidak semua hal dapat dipikirkannya. Hal-hal yang ghaib, akhirat, syurga, neraka dan lain sebagainya, akal tidak dapat menjangkaunya sekalipun manusia itu pintar dan kuat akalnya.

Bagaimana dengan kita? Kita sebagai orang Islam memiliki panduan hidup yang diberikan Allah kepada kita, yaitu petunjuk Allah di dalam Al Quran dan sunnah Rasulullah SAW. Jadi, kita sebenarnya tidak perlu menebak-nebak dan meraba-raba lagi, tidak perlu sampai letih akal kita mencari jawabannya. Lebih baik kita bersandar dengan yang telah Allah berikan kepada kita. Itulah jawaban yang tepat menurut Al Quran dan itulah yang patut menjadi pegangan kita, yang menjadi keyakinan kita, serta amalan perjuangan kita, agar kita mendapat keselamatan. Di dalam Al Quran disebutkan bahwa sesungguhnya yang benar itu datang dari Allah. Karena itu kita terima sajalah jawaban dari Allah. Semoga dengan begitu kita selamat di dunia dan akhirat.

Lalu, apa jawaban Allah atas pertanyaan kita itu. Ternyata Allah telah memberikan jawaban kepada kita, yaitu:

“Dan Aku tidak menciptakan jin dan manusia melainkan agar mereka menyembah (beribadah) kepada-Ku.” (QS Adz Dzaariat 56)

Ayat tersebut mengatakan kepada kita bahwa Allah menciptakan kita untuk beribadah atau mengabdikan diri kepada-Nya. Dengan kata lain kita diciptakan untuk tunduk dan patuh kepada perintah Allah. Maka dengan ayat tersebut maka kita memiliki dalil dan argumentasi yang kuat. Bahkan jika ditinjau secara logika akal maupun secara psikologis, akal kita menerima bahwa sudah selayaknya manusia menyembah Allah yang telah menciptakannya dan hati kecil kita pun setuju untuk menyembah Allah.

Selain dengan dalil ayat suci Al Quran, kita juga dapat membuktikan dengan mudah bahwa akal dan hati kita setuju untuk menyembah Allah. Sebagai contoh, bagaimanakah perasaan kita jika ada orang yang memanggil kita dengan sebutan hamba Allah? Tentu kita tidak akan menolaknya bahkan kita merasa senang. Akal kita menerimanya dan hati kita menyetujuinya. Bahkan kalaupun kita bukan seorang hamba Allah yang patuh dan taat kepada Allah, kita tetap merasa senang dan terhiburdengan sebutan itu.

Mengapa begitu? Karena memang Allah telah menjadikan kita untuk menjadi hamba-Nya. Apa yang disetujui oleh Allah, disetujui juga oleh akal dan hati kita. Dan apa yang disetujui oleh akal dan hati kita, disetujui juga oleh Allah.

Sebaliknya, bagaimanakah perasaan kita jika ada orang yang memanggil kita dengan sebutan hamba dunia, hamba harta atau hamba nafsu? Akal dan hati kita tidak setuju kita dikatakan begitu. Bukan hanya tidak setuju bahkan hati kita terasa sakit. Jika seseorang yang sedang sakit dituduh-tuduh mejadi hamba selain Allah mungkin dia akan meninggal seketika.

Begitulah, apa yang tidak disetujui oleh Allah juga tidak disetujui oleh akal dan nafsu. Dan sebaliknya, apa yang tidak disetujui akal dan hati, Allah juga tidak menyetujuinya.

Karena itu, mau tidak mau kita harus menyembah Allah. Allah setuju, akal setuju dan hati setuju. Jadi kalau manusia tidak mau menyembah Allah, tidak mau mengabdikan diri kepada Allah, tidak mau tunduk dan patuh kepada Allah, dia bukan saja menentang Allah, bahkan menentang akal dan hatinya. Pada hakekatnya menusia menentang dirinya sendiri. Kalau seseorang menentang dirinya sendiri, maka dia tidak akan medapatkan kebahagiaan dalam hidupnya. Walaupun seseorang itu memiliki pangkat dan jabatan yang tinggi, rumah yang mewah dan harta kekayaan yang melimpah.

Buktinya banyak. Kita saksikan di saat ini, bangsa-bangsa yang dikagumi karena kemajuan mereka di bidang ekonomi dan pembangunan, juga terdapat banyak orang terkenal, tapi banyak sekali penduduknya yang mati bunuh diri kareka mereka sudah kehilangan kebahagiaan. Kebanyakan mereka orang yang terkenal tapi hidupnya frustasi.

Mengapa demikian? Karena mereka sama sekali tak mengenal Allah, tidak mau menyembah Allah. Mereka menentang dirinya sendiri sehingga akibatnya mereka tidak mendapatkan kebahagiaan. Karena itu kita harus mengenal dan menyembah Allah, agar kita selamat di dunia dan akhirat.

Mungkin hati kecil kita akan bertanya-tanya, “Jika benar manusia itu sudah selayaknya menyembah Allah, mengapa perasaan hati kita sendiri selama ini tidak mengajak atau mengingatkan kita agar menyembah Allah?”

Kita juga merasa susah untuk taat kepada Allah. Hal itu disebabkan karena di dalam diri manusia ada dua musuh batin yang senantiasa mempengaruhi hati dan akal manusia. Kedua musuh batin itu adalah syaitan dan hawa nafsu yang selalu menggoda manusia dan membawa manusia pada jalan kesesatan.

Di dalam Al Quran disebutkan :

“Sesungguhnya syaitan adalah musuh yang sangat nyata” (QS Al Baqarah 208 )

Dan tentang nafsu, Allah juga berfirman :

“Sesungguhnya nafsu itu selalu mengajak manusia pada kejahatan” (QS Yusuf 52)

Karena dalam diri manusia itu ada dua musuh batin maka hati manusia menjadi lalai dan durhaka kepada Allah. Kalau syaitan dan hawa nafsu tidak ada tentu manusia akan mengenal Allah, cinta dengan Allah, bahkan tenggelam dalam kecintaan kepada Allah karena fitrah manusia telah mengenal Allah sejak sebelum ditiupkannya ruh dan mengetahui bahwa Allah saja yang patut disembah dan diagungkan.

Lalu dengan cara bagaimanakah kita menyembah Allah? Cara menyembah Allah atau beribadah kepada Allah ada tiga bagian, yaitu:

1.Ibadah yang asas: Mempelajari, memahami, meyakini Rukun Iman, serta mempelajari, memahami dan melaksanakan Rukun Islam, yaitu Syahadat, Sholat, Puasa, Zakat, dan Haji bagi yang mampu.

2.Ibadah Fadhailul ‘Amal: Amalan-amalan yang utama seperti puasa Senin Kamis, sholat Tahajud, shalat sunat Rawatib, membaca tasbih, tahmid, tahlil, membaca Shalawat Nabi, dll.

3.Ibadah yang umum: Ibadah yang lebih luas, seluas dunia, yaitu hal-hal mubah (boleh) yang dapat dijadikan amal ibadah jika memenuhi lima syarat :

a. Niat yang benar yaitu karena Alah.
b. Perkara yang kita lakukan dibenarkan oleh syariat
c. Pelaksanaannya juga sesuai dengan syariat
d. Hasil yang diperoleh dipergunakan sesuai syariat
e. Jangan sampai meninggalkan ibadah yang asas

How to Make an Argument

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I thinks this is the important part of the research. How to build an argument. To build an argument it means you understand others works. First step of understanding is to now your interesting area keywords. As a result more reading gives batter understanding and strong argument.

Stop Procrastinating!!!

Procrastination Alert!!!, Stop Wasting time – 15 tips to beat it:
.
1. Know Yourself
2. Practice effective time management
3. Change your perspective
4. Commit to assignment
5. Work in productive environment
6. Be realistic
7. Self-talk positively
8. Un-schedule
9. Swiss-cheese task
10. Dont indulge fantasies
11. Plan for obstacles
12. Improve learning behaviour
13. Help yourself
14. Reward progress
15. Learn to forgive yourself
.
Nothing will be done, if you don’t do it!
.
Finished is BETTER than PERFECT!

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